Handbook of Heroism and Heroic Leadership

HeroismHandbookCoversThe Handbook of Heroism and Heroic Leadership represents the first effort to gather scholarship on heroism into one definitive reference volume.

The Handbook showcases scholarly contributions from distinguished social scientists on the topics of leadership, morality, resilience, courage, empathy, meaning, purpose, altruism, hope, human growth, cooperation, spirituality, health, transformation, and character strengths. The volume provides a much-needed consolidation and synthesis for scholars of heroism and heroic leadership.

The Handbook of Heroism and Heroic Leadership features three conceptually distinct sections that reflect the current state of theory and research on heroism and heroic leadership. These sections are Origins of Heroism, Types of Heroism, and Processes of Heroism. The Origins of Heroism section focuses on the formation, causes, and antecedents of heroic action. Types of Heroism addresses phenomena associated with different categories of heroism and how these hero types affect individuals and society. Processes of Heroism examines the functions, processes, and consequences of heroism.

This volume offers insights and inspiration about the pinnacle of human behavior and how leaders can make use of these insights to help their followers reach their fullest potential. The Handbook provides a compelling foundation for the development of a multidisciplinary perspective on the antecedents and consequences of heroic behavior. The Handbook of Heroism and Heroic Leadership shines a scholarly light on all the gifted and enlightened leaders whose behavior has embodied the most exquisite qualities of humanity.

The Handbook is published by Routledge and is now available at Amazon.com.

Table of Contents

Foreword

Philip Zimbardo

Introduction

Setting the Scene: The Rise and Coalescence of Heroism Science

Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals, and Roderick M. Kramer

Part I

Origins of Heroism

  1. Attributes and Applications of Heroes: A Brief History of Lay and Academic Perspectives

Elaine L. Kinsella, Timothy D. Ritchie, and Eric R. Igou

  1. Why Heroism Exists: Evolutionary Perspectives on Extreme Helping

Sara Kafashan, Adam Sparks, Amanda Rotella, and Pat Barclay

  1. Adaptive Foundations of Heroism: Social Heuristics Push Advantageous Everyday Ethical Behaviors to Heroic Extremes

Gordon T. Kraft-Todd and David G. Rand

  1. The Evolution and Neurobiology of Heroism

Stephanie D. Preston

  1. Character Development and the Emergence of Heroic Leadership: Towards a Relational Developmental Systems-Based Model

Kristina Schmid Callina, Richard M. Lerner, Ettya Fremont, Brian Burkhard, Danielle Stacey, and Shaobing Su

  1. The Moral Character of Heroes

Lawrence J. Walker

  1. Why and How Groups Create Moral Heroes

Ari Decter-Frain, Ruth Vanstone, and Jeremy A. Frimer

  1. The Hero Organism: Advancing the Embodiment of Heroism Thesis in the 21st Century

Olivia Efthimiou

Part II

Types of Heroism

  1. Everyday Heroes: Determinants of Moral Courage

Anna Halmburger, Anna Baumert, and Manfred Schmitt

  1. Heroism in Times of Crisis: Understanding Leadership During Extreme Events

Zeno E. Franco

  1. Holocaust Heroes: Heroic Altruism of non-Jewish Moral Exemplars in Nazi Europe

Stephanie Fagin-Jones

  1. Heroism and Wisdom in Medicine

Margaret Plews-Ogan, Justine E. Owens, Natalie May, and Monika Ardelt

  1. Deviant Heroes and Social Heroism in Everyday Life: Activists and Artists

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Michael Condren, and Izabela Lebuda

  1. To Become or Not to Become? Existential Courage and the Pursuit of Desired Identities

Roderick M. Kramer

  1. Heroism in the Networked Society

Dana Klisanin

  1. A Training Program in Spiritually-Oriented Leadership: Inner Growth for Outer Change

Elsa Lau, Sarah B. Sherman, and Lisa Miller

  1. Career Development and a Sense of Calling: Contexts for Heroism

Bryan J. Dik, Adelyn B. Shimizu, and William O’Connor

  1. Underdogs as Heroes

Joseph A. Vandello, Nadav Goldschmied, and Kenneth Michniewicz

  1. Whistleblowers as Heroes: Fostering ‘Quiet’ Heroism in Place of the Heroic Whistleblower Stereotype
    A J Brown

Part III

Processes of Heroism

  1. The Hero’s Transformation

Scott T. Allison and George R. Goethals

  1. Moral Transformation: The Paths to Heroism, Villainy and Victimhood

Amelia Goranson and Kurt Gray

  1. The Impact of Heroism on Heroes and Observers: Stories of Elevation and Personal Change

Jeanne Nakamura and Laura Graham

  1. Accidental and Purposeful Impediments to Heroism

Craig D. Parks

  1. Heroic Empathy: The Heart of Leadership

Ronald H. Humphrey and Laural L. Adams

  1. Heroic Leaders and Despotic Tyrants: How Power and Status Shape Leadership

Anika Stuppy and Nicole L. Mead

  1. The Intersection of Purpose and Heroism: A Study of Exemplars

Kendall Cotton Bronk and Brian R. Riches

  1. Heroism and the Pursuit of Meaning

Jeffrey D. Green, Daryl R. Van Tongeren, Athena H. Cairo, and Nao Hagiwara

  1. Psychopathy and Heroism: Unresolved Questions and Future Directions

Brett A. Murphy, Scott O. Lilienfeld, and Ashley L. Watts

  1. The Courage of One’s Moral Convictions: Exploring the Two Sides of Heroism

Ronnie Janoff-Bulman and Prerana Bharadwaj

 

Here’s what they’re saying about the Handbook of Heroism and Heroic Leadership:

“Editors Scott Allison, George Goethals and Roderick Kramer have assembled an outstanding team of contributors whose expertise ranges from neurobiology and evolutionary psychology to developmental approaches as well as spirituality, leadership, and career development. In addition to the variety of topics and approaches featured in this volume, readers will appreciate the uniform clarity of the presentations and their engaging style of academic storytelling.”

  • Phil Zimbardo, Professor Emeritus, Stanford University, and Founder of the Heroic Imagination Project

“The study of heroes and exemplars is generating increasing excitement throughout the social sciences at the present time, and for good reason. We live in a time of diminished expectations for moral leadership and true heroism. This innovative Handbook of Heroism and Heroic Leadership draws on the best available science to help us understand the conditions that foster heroic leadership, and how it works across a variety of social contexts. The volume is an essential contribution to the study of human lives in all their full potential.”

  • William Damon, Professor and Director, Stanford Center on Adolescence, author of The Path to Purpose

“Studying heroism is challenging for scientists, yet Allison, Goethals, and Kramer have assembled 30 chapters by knowledgeable authors who explore varied aspects of heroism. The result is a thoroughly impressive volume that surely is the key resource in this developing area of science. Professors could organize an outstanding course or seminar on heroism around these excellent chapters.”

  • Alice Eagly, Professor of Psychology and James Padilla Chair of Arts & Sciences at Northwestern University

“Allison, Goethals, and Kramer’s Handbook marks the emergence of the study of heroes and heroism as a central concern of the social sciences. A handbook in the truest sense, the book’s well-organized and executed chapters—written by leading experts in the field—combine to form a foundation for the study of heroic leadership; they summarize current scholarly thinking, build thematic connections between subareas, suggest novel interpretations and insights, and identify future directions for theory, research, development, and application. This book is a goldmine of information essential for anyone seeking to better understand the ethical, psychology, interpersonal, and spiritual bases of heroism.”

  • Donelson R. Forsyth, Colonel Leo K. and Gayless Thorsness Endowed Chair in Ethical Leadership at the University of Richmond

“This handbook is a comprehensive, informative, and exciting contribution to the literature on heroism and heroic leadership. Material on heroism tends to be scattered in many different places, and it is wonderful to have it at last in one place, in readable and engaging prose. I recommend the handbook most highly.”

  • Robert J. Sternberg, Professor of Human Development, Cornell University

The Grinch: A Villain Makes a Hero’s Journey

tumblr_lwoa32M1pW1qcyr71By Suzanne Lucero

Around this time of year a person might find his or her thoughts turning to a well-known literary character whose ultimate redemption holds hope for even the most hard-hearted of individuals.

I am speaking, of course, of the Grinch.

In the first sentence of How the Grinch Stole Christmas (by Dr. Seuss), we are introduced to the villain of the piece.

Every Who

Down in Who-ville liked Christmas a lot …

But the Grinch,

Who lived just north of Who-ville,

Did NOT.

That’s terrible, we think. Who doesn’t like Christmas? A few sentences later, though, we are given the probable reason for the Grinch’s dislike. His heart, you see, is two sizes too small. Suddenly, the Grinch is a tiny bit sympathetic, and we sort-of understand when he declares,

“Why, for fifty-three years I’ve put up with it now!

“I MUST stop this Christmas from coming!

… But, HOW?”’

This is the inciting incident. The Grinch thinks Christmas means noisy toys and feasting and singing, so how does he stop all this from happening? The Grinch comes up with a plan, a “great, grinchy trick,” and puts it into action. In other words, his journey begins.

He begins by making a Santa Clause hat and coat. (He foregoes the snowy-white beard, though. Maybe it itches.) Then he decides grinch+with+doghe needs a reindeer to complete his St. Nick impersonation. For this he enlists his tiny dog, Max. The Grinch ties a horn on top of Max’s head, thereby changing the dog from a mere pet to a minion: Max will be aiding the Grinch by pulling his sled.

The plan starts well. The Grinch has Max pull the sled into Who-ville and proceeds to steal everything from the first house he sees. The only obstacle that presents itself to the Grinch comes in the shape of a child who has woken up to get a glass of water. When she asks why he is taking the Christmas tree, he placates her with a lie and sends her back to bed. The Grinch continues to ransack the village until all the presents, all the decorations, and all the food for the feast is packed into bags, loaded precariously on the sled, and pulled:

Three thousand feet up! Up the side of Mt. Crumpet,

He rode with his load to the tiptop to dump it.

(You’ve really got to be feeling sorry for Max at this point.)

The Grinch gloats. He’s won! Christmas can’t come, now. Everything is gone and the Whos will all be crying. He pauses to savor his victory and puts his hand to his ear to listen.

And he did hear a sound rising over the snow.

It started in low. Then it started to grow…

But the sound wasn’t sad!

Why, this sound sounded merry!

It couldn’t be so!

But it WAS merry! VERY!

In the hero’s journey, there comes a point where he or she must “enter the cave.” This is the ultimate low point in the story. The hero is alone, either physically or emotionally. Everything he or she has been working for is crumbling and the antagonist has triumphed; the hero is, actually or metaphorically, dead.

This is the Grinch’s cave. This is where he realizes he’s failed.

 He HADN’T stopped Christmas from coming.

IT CAME!

Somehow or other, it came just the same.

But How the Grinch Stole Christmas is a hero’s journey, not a morality tale. For all villains, unless they are true psychopaths (which is a medical condition), the cave offers a final chance to redeem themselves. When their defenses have been beaten and they are no longer fighting but only trying to understand why they failed, their hearts can be touched with a little thing called grace.

Then the Grinch though of something he hadn’t before!

“Maybe Christmas,” he thought, “doesn’t come from a store.

“Maybe Christmas … perhaps … means a little bit more!”

That was the elixir the Grinch found in his cave, the piece of him that was missing. He realized that material things don’t bring happiness. Simply being together with those we love is reason enough to sing.

the_grinch_cut_the_first_roast_beast_by_rhetoric_of_sushi-d4jyzdfAnd what happened then …?

Well … in Who-ville they say

That the Grinch’s small heart

Grew three sizes that day.

With this new understanding and (we hope) love in his heart, the Grinch completes his hero’s journey by returning everything he has taken from the Whos and sharing in their celebratory feast.

Merry Christmas everyone.

– – – – – – – – – – – –

Suzanne Lucero is a wife, mother, and pre-published author who knows a little about a lot of things and is constantly learning more. She is passionate about writing and is determined to publish her novel-in-progress within 5 years.

 

 

Chen Si: The Hero Who Offers Hope to Suicide Attempters

GetFileAttachmentBy Kathryn Lynch

Human connections are a fickle and funny thing. Throughout our lifetimes we may pass by thousands of people without giving a second thought to who they are or where they’re going. Yet one simple interaction can completely alter the course of someone’s life. We only have to pay attention.

Chen Si of Nanjing, China is an ordinary man of simple means. In 2003, he was barely able to make a living selling vegetables in a downtown market. It was then he began his daily walk down the Nanjing Yangtze River bridge, the most popular site for suicides on record. China has more deaths by suicide than any other country in the world, at over 280,000 a year — twice the rate of the United States. The first day in 2003 he saved a man’s life after grabbing him from the railing and tackling him to the ground.

After that event, Si took it upon himself to serve as guardian angel to those who wished to end their lives on the bridge. He built a small house next to the entrance to the bridge, where he has lived alone for the past 11 years. Each year Si saves an estimated 144 people.

Throughout his service, he has seen people with problems of all kinds, but all are plagued by the same inescapable pain and hopelessness. GetFileAttachmentAccording to Si, “I know they are tired of living here. They have had difficulties. They have no one to help them.”

But Chen Si’s heroism goes beyond the physical act of saving one’s life. He provides salvation. He gives hope and direction where there is none. One story he remembers is of a woman whose abusive husband left her and her 3-month old child with nothing. She had no education, no job, and no means of caring for the child. She hoped that her death would require her husband to take care of her baby. After convincing her to leave the bridge with him, Si tracked him down and brought his wife and child with him. After the husband spit in his face, Si responded, “I am her brother now. If you ever hurt her again, I am not going to let you get away with it.” The couple left, and Chen hasn’t heard from them again.

There have been countless others. The billionaire who lost everything. The student who couldn’t handle failure. The dreamer who bet it all and lost in the big city. Si has talked to all of them. And while he cannot alter the circumstances that bring them to that point, he feels it is his responsibility to try and put them on a better path. “I always have to tell them there is nothing I can’t solve,” Chen said. “It’s a lie. Yet I have to keep on telling the lie, to make them think things will get better.”

Chen Si teaches us that those at their lowest point in life, those who are so lost that they feel that they will never find their way again, are in the most need of our help. Many of the people on that bridge did not want Chen Si’s kind words and strong hands to pull them back from the edge — GetFileAttachment-1they pushed him away and yelled in his face, content to accept their fate, and did not believe they were worthy of help and compassion.

It is easy to be a hero where there is a hole to fill, where people actively look for someone to protect and care for them and give their love in return. Chen Si’s true heroism lies in his ability to look for those who do not advertise their struggle. Those who have given up hope that a hero will ever appear. Many of us in a similar situation would wonder how to address such a problem of this magnitude, how to save people who have no desire to be saved.

To Chen Si, there is no choice or considerations to make. “There is a saying in China,” he says, “the prosperity of a nation is everyone’s responsibility. How can we all avoid this responsibility?”
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Kathryn Lynch is an undergraduate enrolled in Scott Allison’s Heroes and Villains First-Year Seminar at the University of Richmond. She composed this essay as part of her course requirement. Kathryn and her classmates are contributing authors to the forthcoming book, Heroes of Richmond, Virginia: Four Centuries of Courage, Dignity, and Virtue.

Keep Calm and Carry On: Heroism as Process

JourneytotheWestBy Dick Mercer

The Chinese Chan (Zen) master Yunmen (c.860–949) was asked,  “What are the teachings of a lifetime?”  He replied, “An appropriate statement.”

Close to the end of Wu Cheng-en’s famous Ming dynasty novel Journey to the West (Hsi-yu Chi) the Buddhist monk Tripitaka and his four animal disciples–Monkey, Pigsy, Sandy–a dragon, and White Horse–are drawing close to India after a long, arduous, and dangerous journey from China.  The reason for their quest is to receive Mahayana scriptures from the Buddha, Shakyamuni, and return to China with them.

Each animal member of this dharma posse has committed to the quest as a means of gaining freedom from punishment for the misuse of an extraordinary, superhuman power.  Tripitaka, on the other hand, is no more than an ordinary Buddhist monk who has been given a very big job to do.

Having come a very long way, the Tang monk and his disciples, who fed on the wind and slept by the waters, one day find themselves before a tall mountain, yet another formidable obstacle to overcome.  Buddha-PrajnaparamitaTripitaka says they must be cautious as there might be danger here; Monkey responds, “Master, you should relax and not worry.”

What follows is a little argument about a very big Buddhist idea — prajnaparamita — the perfection of wisdom.  It ends when both Tripitaka and Monkey fall silent.  Pigsy collapses in laughter.  Obviously Monkey doesn’t know what he’s talking about, but Tripitaka corrects Pigsy.  Monkey’s silence is the true interpretation of prajnaparamita.   In fact, one of his epithets is Aware of Vacuity — emptiness, a crucial part of the perfection of wisdom.

They move on.  After crossing a wide river in a boat with no bottom, a paradoxical experience to be sure, the pilgrims are changed.  Exhibiting a decorous self-control unusual for them, they meet the Buddha, Shakyamuni, and receive 35 major dharma works comprising over 5,000 scrolls.  They set out on the journey back to China but before long a wind scatters all the scrolls on the ground.  Opening one of them they discover “it was snowy white; there was not so much as half a letter on it.”  In fact, all the scrolls are blank!

The posse returns to the Buddha who explains the blank scrolls are indeed the true scriptures, just as good as those with words, but because people are foolish and ignorant “there is nothing for it but to give them copies with some writing on.”  The paradox of the truth of perfect wisdom is that it is wordless, but this is too hard for people who need language and must talk.

The implicit lesson is that it is more important to cultivate a negative capability — the patient, mindful toleration of uncertainty and paradox — and to carry on with equanimity than to hold on to the idea of scriptural truth that’s written down.  Relax and don’t worry, as Monkey says.  img_8470So, freshly taught, the pilgrims set out again for China with the newly inscribed scrolls.

Meanwhile Kuan-yin, reviewing a summary of the dharma posse’s quest, discovers the pilgrims must experience one more crisis, the 81st, before returning home.  They find themselves stopped on the bank of a wide river they crossed on the way out to India.  The great white turtle that ferried them across earlier offers to help them again, but when Tripitaka reveals he forgot to follow through on a promise he made to the turtle, they are all dumped in the water as the turtle submerges and swims away.

The pilgrims manage to save themselves and the scrolls.  Tripitaka admits his careless mistake.  He should have taken more care.  Though they still have the scrolls, this fresh calamity makes clear that constant effort is required.  There’s always something else.  A hero’s work is never done.

They move on and are welcomed by friendly people they had earlier delivered from the terrible domination of a river demon.  In gratitude for what the posse had accomplished for them, the people make statues of Tripitaka, Monkey, Pigsy, and Sandy.  When the four view the figures they react with an unusual and charming humanity.

    ‘Yours is very like,’ said Pigsy nudging Monkey.  ‘I think yours

    is a wonderful likeness too,’ said Sandy to Pigsy, ‘but Master’s

    really makes him out a little too handsome.’  ‘I think it’s very good,’

    said Tripitaka.

It quickly becomes clear the people of the village have other honors ready for the pilgrims.  That evening Tripitaka tells Monkey the villagers know they have mastered the secrets of the Way.  We better creep away quickly he says, because “an adept does not reveal himself; if he reveals himself he is not an adept.”  They all agree.  Monkey controls his temper, Pigsy is no longer a fool, Sandy attains perfect discretion, Horse is well able to see the point of a discussion.

They move on.  Returning to Chang-an, the imperial capital, they are received by the emperor himself.  Monkey, Pigsy, Sandy attend the court despite their outlandish appearance.  They behave.  Tripitaka is seated next to the emperor and the scrolls are presented.  That evening the pilgrims go the Tripitaka’s old temple for lodging.

    Inside the temple, Pigsy did not shout for more food or create

    any disturbance.  Monkey and Sandy behaved with perfect

    decorum.  For all three were now illumined, and it cost them

    no pains to stay quiet.  When night came they all went to sleep.

All the pilgrims behave themselves with perfect mindfulness and self-control, qualities only recently acquired.  The flaws that caused their original confinement and suffering have been reduced to nothing.  They retain their powers, but they are now under control.

When morning comes the emperor reads a statement of thanks to Tripitaka for accomplishing his task.  After settling on the disposition of the scrolls, Tripitaka is asked to do a reading from them on a platform in front of the pagoda that will house them.  Shakyamuni_under_Bodhi_treeThe members of the dharma posse are attending him when he starts his recitation, but just as he begins, they are all miraculously lifted into the air and transported back to the presence of the Buddha in India where each is rewarded with an appropriate title. Perhaps best of all the terrible little migraine cap used to control Monkey when he gave in to bad temper and anger is removed.  It is no longer necessary.

The novel ends with a grand sense of accomplishment.  The journey is done, the goal is realized, rewards are handed down, but the balance of power and behavior all the pilgrims now enjoy is the real reward and conclusion.  This is a state of mind free of the suffering caused by the contamination of anger, sensuality,  carelessness, upsetting emotional attachment, short-sightedness, and other untransformed human weaknesses.

Certainly their journey is finished, but the lesson implicit in the circular, wandering movement of the quest and the oddly conceived requirement of another calamity, the 81st, is one of non-attainment.

In this view enlightenment is a continual process of coming to terms with oneself, of overcoming flaws.  Monkey’s original vision of the hero as a winner-take-all kind of strong guy is replaced by the idea of constantly repairing the disorder of the mind.  This isn’t done by any final achievement, though he achieves it.  This is a paradoxical conclusion like the mutual silence that ends the discussion between Tripitaka and Monkey about prajnaparamita — the perfection of wisdom.

Perhaps the sense of closure the novel ends with is an illustration of just what the  Buddha,  Shakyamuni, means when he says the blank scrolls, the empty scrolls, are the true scriptures, but people are too foolish and ignorant to realize this and they need something to hold on to.

The real issue, however,  is one of behavior, not words.  Left unstated at the end is that the end isn’t an end; the end is, indeed, a process of constantly maintaining mental focus and taming one’s monkey mind — making the appropriate response in the face of unending — often unexpected — change.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

This essay is Richard Mercer’s fifth analysis of heroism from the Buddhist perspective. His first essay focused on the Bodhisattva. Mercer has been a Visiting Instructor of English and Core (especially Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Beckett) at the University of Richmond. He has studied Buddhism since the early 1990s. Only recently has he realized that the Bodhisattva ideal is a wonderful and practicable model to follow.

Heroes of Richmond: Four Centuries of Courage, Dignity, and Virtue

Heroes of Richmond CoverIt has been hailed as a gorgeous river city blessed with abundant resources. It has also been called the city of “contradictions” and “crises” (Campbell, 2012), a city with a “complicated history” replete with “struggles and wounds” (Ayers, 2012; Schwartz, 2012). Richmond, Virginia, has been a magnet for heroism and villainy, a place where the best and worst of human nature have collided over several centuries.

This volume, Heroes of Richmond: Four Centuries of Courage, Dignity, and Virtue, represents an attempt to capture the complex heroic history of a complex city. Authored by a group of outstanding students at the University of Richmond, this book provides coverage of Richmond’s heroes from the first European settlements in the early 1600s to the present day.

The book offers a review of heroism in Richmond across a wide variety of domains. The authors provide an analysis of social activists John Mitchell, Jr., and Oliver Hill; groundbreaking educators such as Maggie Walker, Virginia Randolph, and May Keller; political greats such as Patrick Henry, John Marshall, Douglas Wilder, and Mary Sue Terry; selfless heroes such as Mary Elizabeth Browser, E. Claiborne Robins, Lora Robins, and several unsung citizens; and iconic legends such as Pocahontas, William Byrd II, Edgar Allan Poe, and Arthur Ashe.

Heroes of Richmond: Four Centuries of Courage, Dignity, and Virtue is scheduled for publication in March of 2017.

“Superb scholarship about a stunning city of heroes.” – Dr. James K. Beggan, Professor of Sociology, University of Louisville

– – – – – – – – – –

Table of Contents:

Heroes of Richmond: Four Centuries of Courage, Dignity, and Virtue

Edited by Scott T. Allison

Foreword
Mary Kelly Tate, University of Richmond

Introduction

Richmond, Virginia: A Cultural and Historical Nexus of Heroism
Scott T. Allison, University of Richmond

Part 1
Iconic Heroes

Chapter 1. The Founding of Richmond: William Byrd II’s Heroic Odyssey
Jonathan Anthony Ohlmann, University of Richmond

Chapter 2. Pocahontas: The Unknown, Underestimated Hero of Central Virginia
Meghan N. Dillon, University of Richmond

Chapter 3. The Tell-Tale Hero: Edgar Allan Poe
Michael David Bonifonte, University of Richmond

Chapter 4. Arthur Ashe: A Hero On and Off the Court
Carlie Q. Blessing, University of Richmond

Part 2
Activist Heroes

Chapter 5. John Mitchell Jr: The Hero of Richmond Journalism and Social Change
Josh A. Trauberman, University of Richmond

Chapter 6. Waging War on Separate vs. Equal: Oliver Hill’s Journey From Small Town to the Highest Court
Kathryn K. Lynch, University of Richmond

Part 3
Educator Heroes

Chapter 7. Maggie Lena Walker: The Hero of the Harlem of the South
Brendan J. Griswold, University of Richmond

Chapter 8. Virginia E. Randolph: A Hero of African American Schooling in Virginia
Declan J. Horrigan, University of Richmond

Chapter 9. May Lansfield Keller: The Hero Who Defied All Odds
Aliya J Sultan, University of Richmond

Part 4
Political Heroes

Chapter 10. Patrick Henry: The Revolutionary Hero
Bailey A. Gillespy, University of Richmond

Chapter 11. John Marshall: The Supreme Hero of Justice
Emmalyn G. Dressel, University of Richmond

Chapter 12. Lawrence Douglas Wilder: The Black Pioneer
Janell M. Spigner, University of Richmond

Chapter 13. Mary Sue Terry: The Hero Who Defied the Double Bind
Thomas J. Villani, University of Richmond

Part 5
Selfless Heroes

Chapter 14. Mary Elizabeth Bowser: The Game-Changing Hero
Morgan E. Caron, University of Richmond

Chapter 15. E. Claiborne and Lora Robins: The Convergence of Two Selfless Heroes
Lauren J. Weingarten, University of Richmond

Chapter 16. Unsung Heroes of Richmond: The Extraordinary Feats of Elizabeth Van Lew, Gilbert Hunt, and Sally Tompkins
Mikaela R. Rosen, University of Richmond

 

Bibliography

Campbell, B. (2012). Richmond’s unhealed history. Richmond: Brandylane Publishers.

Griggs, W. S. (2012). Hidden history of Richmond. Charleston, SC: The History Press.

Williams, D. (2015). Spending two perfect days in Richmond, Virginia. http://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestravelguide/2015/04/08/spending-two-perfect-days-in-richmond-virginia/#7b19496066af

Heroes of Richmond Cover

Heroes of Richmond Cover

Heroes and Villains of the Millennial Generation

FRONT_finalThis book explores the heroes and villains of an entire generation of Americans — the Millennial generation, defined as people born between 1982 and 2000.

Authored by Millennials at the University of Richmond, Heroes and Villains of the Millennial Generation is based on a survey of 215 Millennials across the United States who were asked to list their heroes, and their villains.

To our surprise, a large number of people were listed as both heroes and villains.

These complex individuals are the focus of this book. They are: Kanye West, Kim Kardashian, Donald Trump, Hillary Clinton, parents, teachers, Edward Snowden, Batman, Lance Armstrong, Mother Teresa, Severus Snape, and Mark Zuckerberg.

The questions that interested us were:

  • In what ways are these individuals heroes?
  • In what ways are they also villains?
  • Why did these individuals appear on lists of heroes and also on lists of villains?
  • What psychological processes are involved in perceptions of good and evil?

Heroes and Villains of the Millennial Generation provides an analysis of Millennials’ views of heroism and villainy, drawing from current research on heroism science. The book is scheduled for release in March of 2017.

“A compelling analysis of the heroic values of an entire generation.”
– Professor Robert A. Giacalone, Bill Daniels Chair of Ethics, University of Denver

Here is the Table of Contents:

– – – – – –

Heroes and Villains of the Millennial Generation

Edited by Scott T. Allison

Foreword

Brian R. Riches, Claremont Graduate University

Introduction

Chapter 1. Millennials, Heroism, and Villainy: A Confluence of Moral Complexity

Scott T. Allison, University of Richmond

Part I

Entertainers

Chapter 2. Sacrificial Heroism: Media Martyrdom for Inspiration from Kanye West

Matt B. Vandini, University of Richmond

Chapter 3. The Queen of Redemption: Kim Kardashian From Sex Tape to Female Idol

Kana V. Rolett, University of Richmond

Chapter 4. The Double Life of Lance Armstrong

Alex T. Hahn, University of Richmond

Part II

Fictional Characters

Chapter 5. Batman as Caped Crusader: Gotham’s Savior or Undoing?

Alyssa Lynn Ross, University of Richmond

Chapter 6. Turn to Page 364: Deconstructing the Complex Heroism of Severus Snape

Madison M. Lawrence, University of Richmond

Part III

Social Categories

Chapter 7. Unconditional Love and Evil Stepmothers: How Parents are Heroes and Villains

Rebecca M. Fischer, University of Richmond

Chapter 8. Teachers as Heroes or Villains

R. B. Forsyth, University of Richmond

Part IV

Politicians

Chapter 9. Hillary Clinton: A Controversial Lady of Firsts

Rebecca L. Nguyen, University of Richmond

Chapter 10. Donald Trump: Man of Charisma, Man of Insults

Sandy Yu, University of Richmond

Part V

Social Changers

Chapter 11. Mark Zuckerberg: Social Connector or Privacy Violator?

Zihao Liu, University of Richmond

Chapter 12. Mother Teresa’s Empire of Charity

Stephanie M. Ha , University of Richmond

Chapter 13. The Whistleblowing of Edward Snowden: Heroic Self-Sacrifice or Villainous Betrayal?

Arianna M. Guillard, University of Richmond

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