Exaggeration This operator increases the spatial extension of the geometric representation of a given object, in order to focus on its importance, and to improve its legibility.
Simplification This operator eliminates unnecessary details of a given spatial object, without distortion of its original shape (e.g. elimination of curved lines).
Size reduction This operator reduces the size of a given geographic object.
Aggregation This operator merges nearby and adjacent objects into a new, single object (e.g. the merging of nearby small lakes into a single lake).
Refinement This operator alters and adjusts the geometry and appearance of an object in order to improve its aesthetic visual aspect and to ensure its compatibility with reality (e.g. performing the smoothing of a given line, modification of the orientation of some symbols).
Selection This operator reduces the density of spatial objects, as well as their levels of detail. Meanwhile, it preserves the representative distribution pattern of these objects.
Dissolution This operator combines items that share similar geographic attributes into a new object, which in turn has a higher level of abstraction, in addition to a new symbol.
Displacement This operator is used to move objects in a map in order to maintain the limits of separation between them.
Elimination This operator eliminates various geographic objects because of their small size or lesser importance with regards to the map’s theme (e.g. elimination of small islands, elimination of short streets).