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Romanian and Egyptian Identity

My Romanian National Identity

Infinity Column






The Endless Column, built by Constantin Brancusi in 1938, is one of the most remarkable artworks from Romania. With perfection defined by harmony in dimensions and sides’ ratios, the monument symbolizes prosperity and creativity. It was built in honor of the courageous acts of the World War I heroes from Targu Jiu. I am proud of my nation’s glorious past and grateful for the historical treasures left as a legacy for future generations. This ascensional emblem, which captures terrestrial energies and emits them in the exterior world, showed me that the impossible is just a challenge that can be overcome and encouraged me to reach high with my dreams and aspirations. A real inspiration for creation, the Infinity Column taught me to rediscover myself and to integrate wisdom, science, and harmony in my life.           

Coat of Arms of Romania – The Eagle






The golden Aquila holding a cross in its peak, a symbol on the coat of arms of Romania, is a central element that illustrates the founding dynasty and evokes the country’s history. The coat of arms keeps the tradition alive, and its meaning awakens the national feeling within me.

For me, the eagle or the “king of birds” represents power, identity, sovereignty, and nobility. On top of that, it is the image of pride, authority, and justice, which imposes it as a value of national representation. Moreover, it is an emblem of freedom through high flight, light, fire, and water as elements of power.

From the eagle, I learned to be strong. It is a dignified portrayal that helps me overcome difficulties and always be reborn with great power of character.

Merry Cemetery






The Merry Cemetery is located in the northern part of Romania, in the heart of Maramures, in Sapanta village. It is the place where, contrary to the traditional Romanian culture, death is not treated with sadness and mourning, but rather with happiness and joy. The cemetery is famous for the brightly colored tomb crosses and paintings depicting the buried people’s occupations, but also humorous verses about their lives. The idea for the Merry Cemetery belonged to Stan Ioan Patras, sculptor, poet, and painter from 1938, and then it was transformed into a local tradition.

Spiritually speaking, the tradition in Sapanta in which the concept of life after death implies a particular faith made me approach life differently. This had a substantial impact on my character, shaping my identity and giving me the strength to see the good in every situation around me.

Palace of the Parliament





The most expensive and biggest civil, administrative building, the Palace of the Parliament, is located in Bucharest, Romania’s national capital.

The Palace of the Parliament was built by Nicolae Ceausescu, the ruler from that time, in a period of significant economic deprivation. Although the building was intended to glorify socialism, communism, and totalitarianism, 31 years later, after the Romanian Revolution from 1989, it represents democracy through the hosted institutions (Chamber of Deputies, Senate, Legislative Council, Constitutional Court).

So-called “the megalomaniac’s last greeting to his people,” the Palace of the Parliament, spreading over 330,000 square meters, is one of the biggest buildings in the world, holding the title of the heaviest construction in the Guinness World Records.

This building is impressive through every single detail of the inside rooms, but also through its exterior appearance. The imagination and vision the architects had when creating this edifice are a tribute to the Romanian nation.

The Sphinx





The Bucegi Plateau hosts one of Romania’s most impressive natural monuments, the Sphinx, located at 2216 meters altitude in the Bucegi Mountains. The name comes from the formation’s shape that resembles the human face, resulting from wind erosion over a long period of time.

The Sphinx was born during the Dacian time, and researchers say it might be our oldest sacred location. The Bucegi Plateau was the meeting place of those who worshiped the god Zalmoxis by bringing offerings.

It is a pilgrimage place for tourists on November 28, when the “energy pyramid” effect occurs. Due to the sun’s rays, a so-called pyramid that is believed to emit positive energy forms above the Sphinx.

The legend says that there is a time tunnel between The Sphinx in Bucegi and the one from Egypt, but so far, no one has been able to prove this fact.

Peles Castle





Peles Castle in Sinaia, the summer residence of Romania’s royal family, was built in 1883 at the request of King Carol I of Romania. It is one of the most important buildings in Romania and Europe, having a unique character through its historical and artistic value. The castle hosted many personalities, writers, musicians, but also kings and queens, leaving valuable documents and materials from that time as testimony.

“Peles Castle, an authentic royal crown, is a symbol of the independence and power of our country, of the Romanians’ trust and love, and its value lies in Romania’s own merits.” (King Mihai I, 2011)

The Dacian Circular Calendar – The Sanctuary






It is believed that the oldest astronomical construction in Romania could be the Sanctuary situated in the Dacian capital Sarmizegetusa Regia, located in the Orastie Mountains, at an altitude of 1200 meters. This archeological complex was built in III-II centuries BCE. Historians see in this monument a religious sanctuary and a Dacian calendar.

The Dacian calendar was based on a 13 years cycle, and the average year was 365.23 days. This calendar stopped being used after the capital of Dacia was conquered and destroyed in 106 CE and was replaced by the Julian Calendar, used in the entire Roman Empire. It is believed that the Martisor holiday, which celebrates the beginning of the spring, was the beginning of the new year for the Dacians.

The Great Circular Sanctuary of Sarmizegetusa Regia is not only the pattern of a calendar, but it also incorporates numerous meanings about the passage of time, about the macrocosm and microcosm unity.

This place is considered a “testament” with an indisputable value left by our Dacian ancestors.

Transfagarasan Road






Transfagarasan Road has been called many times “the most beautiful road in the world.” The fascinating road built over the Fagaras mountain group is one of the biggest attractions in Romania, attracting tourists from all over the world.

Located in the mountains that host the highest peak in the country – Moldoveanu with an altitude of 2544 meters – Tansfagarasan unites Muntenia and Ardeal with its wining curves. It forms a unique landscape in which nature can be captured in the most spectacular images. The place where the road reaches maximum altitude is Belea Lake, where tourists can spend the night in an ice igloo, open only three months per year.

This road awakened the spirit of adventure within myself and the curiosity the explore the furthest away places on Earth. This is how my passion for nature and traveling was born.

Romanian Traditional Clothing – “Ia”







Ia is a blouse, a component of the traditional Romanian clothing, and it has its origin in the Dacian folk costume. It is handmade of white cotton cloth, adorned with Romanian folk designs and sometimes with beads. Through embroidered motifs and symbols, ia expresses the feeling of belonging to a community, to a region, but it also marks important celebrations.

The Romanian port has two essential characteristics – its unity and continuity. The continuity symbolizes the path traveled by the folk costume born in the heart of the Dacian civilization, until today. By looking at the essential aspects which ia represents and are seen in the regional port throughout the country, we get a sense of harmonious unity.

The traditional ia has inspired many artistic figures and has appeared, over time, in paintings, but also in great Romanians and international fashion designers’ collections.

Every year, on June 24, we are brought together by the attraction for national belonging, celebrating the national day of the ia by wearing with pleasure our traditional port.

Traditional Romanian Cuisine






The Romanian gastronomy belongs to our culture and mirrors through each dish the country’s fascinating history. Among the traditional food, there are found pies, jams, and homemade sweets.

Transylvania pride itself on its drinks – more precisely, the alcoholic beverage named tuica, stronger than in other regions of the country. It is prepared from fruits such as plums, peaches, or apricots that are left to ferment.

Sarma is a dish based on minced chicken, pork, lamb, or beef, mixed with various spices and rise, then wrapped sauerkraut, stevia, grape leaves, spinach, or even horseradish. My grandmother respects the tradition and cooks the sarma in a clay pot, on the bottom of which she places pepper and thyme leaves. The sarma is served with sour cream on top and polenta on the side. I could say it is one of my favorite dishes.

Traian Vuia – a legacy in the aeronautical science field






Traian Vuia, a famous inventor and builder of airplanes and engines, pioneer of Romanian and world aviation, was born on August 17, 1872, in Surducul Mic, Timis county.

On March 18, 1906, the airplane “Vuia no. 1”, piloted by its inventor and builder, performed the first flight in the world. The aircraft detached from the ground and flew through its own means, without any other auxiliary installation connected to the ground. “Vuia no. 1” flew a distance of approximately 12 meters, at the height of 60 centimeters above the ground. Passionate about mathematics, physics, and technology, Traian Vuia proved that a device heavier than air could lift and fly on its own without any exterior help.

In my hometown Timisoara, the international airport was named after Traian Vuia in 2003. A strong sense of pride awakens in me for the Romanian national values such as scientific discoveries that facilitate the entire world.

Romanian Modern Art






The artworks from the XIX-XX centuries illustrate an accentuated modernism, with paintings full of energy and color. The attraction to cubism and constructivism artistic currents was marked by many Romanian artist representatives such as Max Herman Maxy (1895 – 1971) and Alexandru Ciucurencu (1903 – 1977). Their work is directed towards the geometrization of the elements, emphasizing the chromatic expressiveness in a simplified form.

This stage emphasizes compositional balance through the combination of mathematical logic with pastel geometric shapes, a sign of creative evolution in the painted art.

The Egyptian National Identity

The Great Pyramid of Giza







The Great Pyramid of Giza was built over 4,500 years ago, around the year 2550 BCE, and its construction represents a mystery to this day. It is an emblem of Egypt and a symbol of an edifice that tends to perfection, capable of conveying the glory of the past. Powerful force through its energy, leading to inspiration and desire, by seeing the Pyramid of Cheops, I understood that I am in a strong spiritual and ancestral connection with my surroundings. As the pyramid is a testimony of superior knowledge throughout time, the fusion of all the sciences and employed techniques could be a message for future generations – a challenge of self-transcendence.

Coat of Arms of Egypt – The Eagle of Saladin







The Eagle of Saladin, an iconic figure for Egyptians, is part of the coat of arms of Egypt. It has a close relationship with the culture of the gods’ world. In Ancient Egypt, religion saw the eagle as a winged force that would bring the spirit back to life. The bird was the form in which the part of the soul that was released after death returned to the world of the living. This was also the emblem of Horus, the god of the sky. From this symbolism, I like to take the courage and determination of starting over when life does not go as planned.

The Book of the Dead






Written 3,500 years ago, Papyrus of Any (which included the Egyptian Book of the Dead) is the most complete, artistically decorated, and, at the same time, the best-preserved document of the philosophical and religious knowledge in Ancient Egypt.

These texts, usually written on papyri, are part of the rituals in which the body of the deceased is prepared such that the soul is ready for the afterlife journey.

In the perspective of the ideal Egyptian thinking based on a science of secrets, and with the help of magical spells, death and what happens after could be controlled. The threshold between life and death could be crossed to survive in another dimension.

Fascinated by the fantastic universe that the Egyptians see beyond appearances, with full faith in the conceptualization of the soul beyond death, the Egyptian rituals have left their mark on my spiritual life.

Aswan High Dem





One of the most impressive and important engineering works is the Aswan High Dam, ranking 3rd place in the world’s top dams, both due to its size, but also through the utility it offers. The dam, at its maximum capacity, produces half of Egypt’s total energy.

Aswan is an embankment dam built for the main purpose of avoiding the annual floods caused by the Nile River in the Aswan area. Additionally, some of the stored water is used for irrigation, and the builders took the opportunity to produce electricity through a hydroelectric power plant. For Egypt, it is a symbol of pride and power.

The Sphinx





The Sphinx of Giza, situated near the pyramids, is one of the world’s greatest monuments. The Egyptian Sphinx is a mystical creature created from the combination of the head – in other words, the intelligence – of the ruling kind, and the powerful body of a lion – associated with the symbol of Sun. The statue was built on the site of an old quarry, and it seems that it was carved from only one piece of stone, which ensured its resistance over time.

The monument is today a symbol of both Ancient and Modern Egypt. The Sphinx has been and will always remain a source of inspiration for the construction of later edifices.

Valley of the Kings






The Valley of the Kings is a valley in Egypt located on the west bank of the Nile, where over a period of almost 500 years (16th century BCE – 11th century BCE), tombs for the pharaohs and nobles of the New Kingdom were built. Most burial chambers were decorated with religious texts, images, and objects that ensured the deceased a comfortable existence in the afterlife.

Being a constant source of inspiration, some people have named the Valley of the Kings, the biggest open-air museum in the world. Immense sculptures, temples, and pyramids remain from the time when Egypt was the largest civilization on Earth. Under the ruling of the pharaohs, powerful leaders considered gods, Egypt prospered, leaving behind treasures that have impressed generations.

With sand-covered tombs, austere pyramids, and pharaonic temples, the Valley of the Kings awakens the desire for knowledge and exploring.

The Egyptian Calendar







The ancient Egyptians were the first to measure the year with some accuracy by inventing two calendars. One of them was a monthly calendar, which was used mainly for organizing religious festivals. The other one was a solar calendar, which was used for administrative purposes and in the ancient Egyptians’ daily lives. It is the first calendar to have 365 days in a year, and it is the forerunner of the Gregorian calendar used today.

The Egyptians studied the stars as early as the fifth millennium BCE. The sky was divided into 36 decans (small constellations), and each of them rose annually at sunset for a period of 10 days in a specific area of the sky. Based on these constellations, the year was divided into 12 months, 30 days each, leaving five days at the end of the year for celebrations.

The Egyptian calendar was the first solar calendar in history and was based on the seasonal year. The three seasons each lasted four months. The beginning of the year was marked by the Nile’s overflow, as the life of the Egyptians was greatly influenced by it.

Ancient Egypt is the birthplace of the “modern clock.”

The Suez Canal





The Suez Canal, west of the Sinai Peninsula, connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea and is 163 kilometers long and 300 meters wide at its narrowest point.

The Egyptians built it for international trading purposes. The idea of connecting the two seas dates back to Ancient Egypt when a Pharaoh’s Canal between the Nile River and the Mediterranean Sea was constructed. Over time, the canal underwent numerous expansions, and it became a maritime link between Europe and Asia. This route made it possible to avoid the need to bypass the entire continent of Africa and also experienced several wars and years of inactivity.

The Suez Canal’s economic zone is of great importance, as the Egyptian state wanted the surroundings of the waterway to be more than a transit area and contribute to the country’s economic development.

This canal is a miracle of the nineteenth century, belonging to the aspiration of humanity.

Clothing in Ancient Egypt – Kalasiris






Kalasiris was worn in Ancient Egypt by women and had the length of a dress. Most of the time, these tunics were white and made of linen, accompanied by a belt around the waist. The clothes were also adorned with beads for decorative purposes. The jewelry was a clothing accessory and was considered to have magical powers. All religious symbols were inlaid in gold or clay. Most of the times, the gods depicted on jewelry were Horus (his eyes symbolized eternity) and Ra (deity of the sun).

These simple but stunning outfits offered women elegance and sensuality, defining their personality.

Egyptian Food






The Egyptian diet was mainly vegetarian. The meat could not be stored for long periods of time because the Egyptians did not have a refrigerator, so it was eaten shortly after the animals were sacrificed. Their food was mainly based on bread and beer. Beer was the most popular drink, being consumed at every meal of the day as it was considered to be healthier than the water of the Nile River. The workers’ wages were, in fact, a combination of beer and bread. However, vegetables and fruits accounted for most of the Egyptian diet: lentils, leeks, garlic, olives, pomegranates, grapes, dates, and figs.

Among the traditional dishes that are believed to have been cooked since antiquity and that must be tried are Ful Medames (beans with oil and lemon juice, optionally with garlic or onion), the Egyptian version of hummus as a side of Ta’meya (Egyptian falafel), and Rozz Me’ammar (rice cooked in milk or butter with chicken).







The hieroglyphic writing dates back to 3000 BCE and is composed of hundreds of symbols and images. A hieroglyph can represent a word or a sound, and the same character can serve different purposes in distinct contexts.

It was thought that the hieroglyphs were “the words of gods” and were mainly used by priests. They can be found written on graves, stones, scrolls of papyrus, and on artworks. It is such a unique writing system that people could not decrypt it for a long time. Over time, however, the secrets of this language have been discovered, and today we can fully translate the hieroglyphic writing.

Due to the Egyptians’ meticulousness in recording aspects, especially related to the reign of the pharaohs, we know exactly the name and period of time of no less than 33 dynasties. At the same time, we have access to numerous literary works, songs of praise, stories, and embalming techniques. Without these writings, ancient Egyptian culture could have been lost in time.

Egyptian Art






The Egyptian art dates back to the 31st century BCE and consists of paintings, sculptures, drawings on papyrus, jewelry, and architecture, all with religious meaning.

The ancient Egyptians’ connection with the protective gods was profound and manifested both on Earth and in the afterlife. The artists gave the colors specific religious meanings. Red was a negative color, being associated with Seth, the god of the desert. Green, the color of the vegetal life, joy, and youth, was Osiris’s color, the god of resurrection and immortality. Black had the same meaning; it was the color that depicted the fertile land of the Nile River, which, through its outflows, ensured the eternal “revival” of Egypt.

All the artworks can be found today in museums from all over the world. It was essential for Egyptian artists that their works lasted centuries, even millennia, without altering. As Thucydides said, Egyptian art is “an acquisition for eternity.”





Final Project – Comparing Egypt to Yourself

My Personal/National Identity

The flag of India is important to me because it is a big part of my identity. India is where my family is from and where most of my culture originates. The flag itself represents the distinct values of the country: strength, peace, and growth. The saffron color stand for growth, the white color stands for purity, the green color stands for life, and the wheel stands for progress. I often see this flag as it is within my house and I visit India every few years. It serves as a constant reminder of my heritage and what the country stands for.
Chicago, Illinois is where I was born and raised for the first few years of my childhood. This city means a lot to me as I have multiple memories of the times when I lived and visited there. Chicago, being one of the biggest cities in the US, has a unique culture that I fell in love with. The city opened my eyes to the endless opportunities this country offers. The diverse population allowed me to create friends of all colors and backgrounds. This place will always hold a special place in my identity and who I am.
The Taj Mahal, “Crown of the Palace,” is a mausoleum in the Indian city of Agra. It is one of the world’s most admired masterpieces and attracts 7-8 million tourists a year. It is a symbol of the rich history and culture of India. Having visited this monument once, I will always have a special connection with this unforgettable location. Anytime I see or hear about the Taj Mahal, I am reminded of the beauty of Mughal architecture and what this country has been able to accomplish.
Mount Rushmore is an iconic monument within the United States. Located in South Dakota, it is a memorial of four presidents of American history: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Teddy Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln. These four men were able to accomplish much in their presidency and brought great change to the country. The monument serves as a symbol of the nation’s birth, growth, development, and preservation. I visited once when I was young and it was a breathtaking experience. I learned much of the nation’s values and what the country stands for.
Mahatma Gandhi, one of history’s most iconic nationalists, is a very respected individual in Indian culture. His nonviolent philosophy of passive resistance is an inspiration to many all over the world. He successfully freed India from British rule without the spilling of blood. When visiting India, I see that Gandhi is present almost everywhere, in the form of statues and monuments. He is also the face of some forms of currency. Mahatma Gandhi is a constant reminder of what India stands for and what it has endured getting to where it is.
The ability right to vote is a value that the United States of America is built upon. Eligibility to vote in the US is established through the US Constitution and by state law. This country allows its people to choose who leads, a privilege not many countries share. Just this past election, I was able to vote for the first time. Choosing who I believe will best represent the citizens was a reminder of the democratic values this country holds dear.
St. Patrick’s Church is a church located near St. Thomas Mt. in Chennai India, my mother’s hometown. This church has been around for 300 years, allowing generations of my family to attend mass. My family, being devout Catholics, raised me with the same religious upbringing they were brought up with. This church is a two-minute walk from our home in India, so every time I visit this is where I tend to go for mass. There are many traditions and rituals my family follows that helps unite us through a religious bond.
The Statue of Liberty is an iconic monument located in New York. It embodies the values of freedom and liberty, two principles that helped found this country. The statue also commemorates the national abolishment of slavery. I’ve seen the statue first-hand multiple times and it never ceases to amaze me. The statue is a permanent symbol of hope and opportunity for citizens and those looking to seek a better life in America.
The Andaman Islands are a group of islands within the Indian Ocean. The islands belong to the Indian government and serve as a popular tourist destination though there are still indigenous people that live there. It is where my father was born and raised. I have visited once and it was the best experience of my life. From snorkeling to riding elephants, I was able to experience once-in-a-lifetime moments. I also learned of the culture of India down there and how they lived.
Public education from kindergarten to twelfth grade is offered for free in the United States. This is an ability not many countries grant. Public education was declared a way to educate children in an attempt to prepare them to become disciplined, productive members of society. I attended public school before college and thoroughly enjoyed my experiences with it. I was able to learn much about this country and meet all different types of individuals.
Indian cuisine is made up of a variety of regional and traditional food native to India. Due to the diversity in soil, climate, occupations, culture, and ethnic groups, there is a great variety of Indian food. Indian cuisine is greatly influenced by religion, mostly Hinduism. Historical events including invasions, trades, and colonization have introduced certain foods to Indian cuisine. For example, Columbus’ discovery of the New World brought new fruits and vegetables to India. Indian cuisine has influenced numerous cuisines all over the world. On special occasions, I enjoy eating traditional Indian food that my mother cooks. I take great pride in Indian cuisine with India being where my heritage is from. The cooking includes a variety of spices, creating many different flavors.
American sports are one of the biggest forms of entertainment, making them a big part of the country’s culture. Whether it be college or professional, both rake in millions of views. Players come from all over the world to compete. Sports are associated with education in the US, with high schools and universities have organized sports teams. I myself take great pride in watching many of these sports and play two of them. Basketball and soccer have followed me from youth leagues to varsity high school teams. Sports are a big part of who I am and what I like to do.

My Egyptian Identity

Cats in Ancient Egypt held a great amount of significance. The Egyptians believed that cats were magical beings with the ability to bring good luck to the individuals that housed them. To respect and honor these animals, they would be dressed in jewels and fed treats for royalty. When cats passed away they were mummified and buried with their owners.
Cleopatra was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. She was a very powerful individual at a time when women were traditionally seen as inferior. Cleopatra greatly influenced Roman politics at a crucial time period in history. She also changed the way Western empires would be governed. Cleopatra left a lasting impact on the political aspect of Egypt.
In 1922, Great Britain agreed to recognize Egypt as independent under the condition that the Sultan changes his title to King. In the process, the King changed the national flag through a royal decree. The three stars represent the three territories of the kingdom and the green background symbolizes the agricultural nature of the country. This flag added to the establishment of Egypt’s independence and the formation of a kingdom.
The First Dynasty of Egypt marked a time of change for the Ancient Egyptians. It was the first set of Egyptian kings to rule over the unified country. The First Dynasty became the foundation for Egyptian politics and helped shape Egypt the way it is today.
Egyptian hieroglyphic writing is a system that employs characters in the form of images. It was the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. Logographic, syllabic, and alphabetical elements were combined to create a total of some 1,000 characters. Much of Egypt’s history and traditions were documented through the use of hieroglyphics. The system influenced many other civilizations to preserve their history and culture through the use of documentation.
Islam is the most commonly practiced religion in modern Egypt, with 90% of the population identifying as Islamic. Followers study the Prophet Muhammad’s teachings, prayer rituals, pilgrimage, etc. It has become the world’s second-largest religion with Egypt being a big representation of the following population.
King Tutankhamun was an Ancient Egyptian Pharoah during the end of the 18th century. He was the last of his royal family to rule during the New Kingdom of the country. His tomb, hoarding a great number of treasures and artifacts, revealed a great deal about how royal life was in Ancient Egypt. King Tutankhamun and his tomb have since attracted the attention of many, making him the most famous Pharoah of all time. He has become an iconic symbol in Egyptian culture.
The Nile River is the longest river in Africa and the disputed longest river in the world. Due to most of Egypt’s land being desert, the Nile was able to provide fertile land to the Ancient Egyptians. Along the river, they grew crops as the soil was rich. The river also provided many resources for building things and served as a field of transportation for boats. The Nile still plays a big role in the life of Egyptians today and is famous all over the world.
The Papyrus plant is a reed that grows along the Nile River. In Ancient Egypt, the plant was used for a number of things, mostly as a material to write on. Ancient Egyptians also used the reed to create baskets, sandals, mats, rope, blankets, tables, chairs, mattresses, medicine, perfume, food, and clothes. Much of Egypt’s history and culture was documented on papyrus allowing the knowledge of Ancient Egypt to grow.
The Egyptian pyramids are ancient masonry structures created and located in Ancient Egypt. They are one of the greatest wonders of the world and are admired every year by many. They were built by Ancient Egyptians and most served as tombs for the pharaohs during the Old and Middle Kingdoms. They were built during a time when Egypt was one of the richest and most powerful civilizations in the world and are a constant reminder of the country’s rich and glorious past.
Ancient Egyptian deities are gods and goddesses that were worshipped in Ancient Egypt. The beliefs and rituals that were created as a result of these deities formed the core of Ancient Egyptian religion. There were over 2,000 deities in the Egyptian pantheon. They appear in virtually all aspects of Ancient Egyptian civilization and played a significant role in the lives of the population.
The Great Sphinx of Egypt is a limestone statue depicting a mythical creature. It faces from West to East, standing on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile River. In Ancient Egypt, the sphinx was a spiritual guardian and a prominent mythological being. Figures of the sphinx were included in tombs and temples. Today, the statue is a popular tourist destination and is an example of the beauty and rich history of Egyptian culture.

My Identity

My Ghanaian Identity

Food – Fufu and Jollof


One can tell a lot about a country’s culture by its food and to be honest , Ghanaians love their food! Ghanaians love to prepare dishes that include starchy components such as fufu (picture on the left) which usually goes with  soup and protein. Some popular dishes include jollof (picture on the right) waakye, boiled yam, tuo zaafi and banku. Most dishes are eaten by hand and fufu in particular is scooped up in pieces with the right hand and then dipped in soup before consumption. 



Greetings are very important and necessary when living in a Ghanaian society. When talking to an older person, you must not gesture with your left hand. In the Ghanaian society almost every gesture done with the left hand when conversing with someone is considered as disrespectful and rude. For example, you cannot hand over items to another person with your left hand, it has to be with your right. I sometimes subconsciously apologize by saying, “sorry for the left” any time I use my left hand when talking or passing an item to someone. 


There are a lot of tribes in Ghana but the six larger groups are the Akans, Ewes, Ga-Adangbe, Mole Dagbanis, Guans, and Ga. I am from the Akan tribe and it is the largest tribe in Ghana comprising about 47% of the population. It is also one of the few matrilineal societies in the whole of west Africa. Akans are made up of Ahantis and Fantes who are mostly located in the Ashanti and Cape Coast regions of Ghana. The official language of the Akan tribe is Twi and I am proud to say I am fluent in it. 


There are three main religions in Ghana, namely the Christian, Muslim and African Traditional Religion. Religion is a very big part of Ghana and according to a 2018 analysis by The Guardian, Ghana and Georgia were the only two countries where people under 40 were more religious than their older compatriots. Christianity is the largest religion in Ghana with 70% of the population followed by Islam which makes up about 25%. I am a Christian and so is my family.  


Ghanaians love their music and are most likely to dance to every song they hear on the streets. Before Afrobeat became popular, highlife dominated the scene even up until this day. Most Ghanaian music can be easily danced to, because they sometimes rhyme with jazz and rock music. The new generation; however, has transformed this style into their own taste: hiplife. This is like a younger, hipper version of classical highlife. 


Festivals are one important aspect in the Ghanaian society and culture. They are celebrated for various reasons by the various tribes in the country. I lived in the Greater Accra region: the capital of Ghana, which is predominantly occupied by the Ga tribe hence why I am fluent in the Ga language. The Ga people, which are predominantly fishermen, celebrate Homowo to appease the sea goddess and in return for a successful fishing year. A few days before the festival, a ban is placed on loud music throughout the town. It might be strange to be in a bar without loud music but the Ga people take this practice very seriously. 


Modern Ghanaians wear a mix of traditional and western fashion. But it is safe to say that African fabrics dominate in the Ghanaian society. From its patterns to its designs, Ghanaian fabrics are entrenched in our culture. Kente cloth (the picture on the right above), which became very popular in the 1960s and 70s during the civil rights movement in America, is originally from Ghana. It is known to be woven by the Akan tribe and is typically worn during ceremonies such as weddings and naming ceremonies. The batakari (the picture on the left above) is also popular in Ghana, and it originates from the northern regions of Ghana. I own a couple of kente clothing which I wear to church and other ceremonies. 


There are more than 90 languages spoken in Ghana of which the most common ones are Twi, Ga, Ewe and English. English is the official language of Ghana with more than 80% of the people speaking it fluently. Personally, I speak Twi, Ga, and Pidgin English in addition to English which is really common in Ghana. 

The golden stool

The golden stool is the ultimate symbol of power and strength in the Ashanti Kingdom, of which I am a part of. This stool is believed to possess the soul of the Ashanti people. The stool was commanded by the then Chief Priest: Okomfo Anokye after which it descended from heaven in a cloud of white dust and landed on the lap of the first king of the Ashanti Kingdom. It was then proclaimed to be the strength and unity of the Ashanti people thus its safety is taken seriously. 

The Yaa Asantewaa War 

The Yaa Asantewaa War also known as The War of The Golden Stool was fought in the early 1900s between British troops and the Ashanti people. Yaa Asantewaa was the queen mother of Ejisu in the Ashanti empire who stood up to the British army when no one did. The war began when British representative Sr. Frederick Hodgson sat on the Golden Stool. This was seen as the highest level of disrespect in the Ashanti Kingdom but all other male rulers were debating on how best to respond to such an act due to fear of the British Army. As soon as this news became known to Yaa Asantewaa, she held her ground and led her troops as the Commander in Chief of the Ashanti Army which inspired other Ashanti rulers to join the war. She is seen as a symbol of bravery and courage throughout Ghana.


The picture above shows the first president of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah (in the middle), delivering the speech of freedom. On this night he delivered the famous phrase, “the African People are capable of managing their own affairs and Ghana our beloved country is free forever.” Ghanaian independence from the British colonial rule occurred on the 6th of march in 1957 and we were the first sub-Saharan African country to gain independence. Independence day is dear to the heart of Ghanaians and every 6th of March we gather at the independence square in Accra to parade and celebrate it. People from all over the country travel to Accra to experience such celebrations and it is also televised throughout the country. 

The Cape Coast Castle

The tourism industry in Ghana is known to promote cultural and heritage tourism and the Cape Coast Castle is not an exception to this. The Cape Coast Castle was built in Cape Coast, Ghana as a trading post for timber and gold by the Portuguese in 1555. It was later used in the Trans-Atlantic slave trade to hold slaves before they were loaded onto ships and sold in the Americas and Caribbean. It is popularly known to have “the gate of no return” which represents the last stop before crossing the Atlantic ocean. This castle serves as a reminder to Ghanaians of their past and history with British Colonizers. 

Egyptian Identity


Imhotep was a chief minister to the King of Egypt :Djoser in 2630 BCE. He was a physician, astronomer, priest, and politician; however, his most famous contribution to Ancient Egypt was in the field of Architecture. When one thinks of Ancient Egypt, it is likely that the first three things one may say will include pyramids. As an architect, Imhotep is credited with designing and building the famous step pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara which inspired the building of all other pyramids. Imhotep is respected throughout Egypt today, and he serves as a symbol of civilization and creativity to the Egyptian people. 


Religion has always been important to Egyptians throughout history. It played a major role in the lives of Ancient Egyptians because life on earth was seen as one part of an eternal journey. The depth of thinking and imagination displayed in creation of ideas and images of gods and goddesses in Ancient Egypt is unmatched. Throughout history, religion in Egypt has evolved to become the driving force of cultural expression. Today, the majority religion in Egypt is Islam, with the Sunnis being the largest. About 8% to 10% of the Egyptian population are Christians with the Coptic Orthodox Church being the largest Christian denominations. 


Tutankhamun is arguably the most famous and respected Egyptian Pharaoh in the modern world. He ruled Ancient Egypt in 1336 BCE. Tutankhamun is known for returning order to a land left in chaos by his predecessor’s political-religious reforms. His fame today was as a result of his almost-intact tomb discovered in the Valley of the Kings by an archaeologist. Today, his golden sarcophagus now stands as a symbol almost synonymous with Egypt. 

Pyramid of Giza

The Great Pyramid of Giza and the two other smaller pyramids in the picture above serve as the burial tombs of Egyptian Pharaohs namely Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure. Khufu began constructing the pyramid in 2550 BCE and it is believed to be made of about 2.3 million stones. The second pyramid was built by Khufu’s son Khafre and it is marked by a unique feature called a sphinx. The sphinx is a monumental sculpture with its back half resembling a lion and the front half, the pharaoh’s head. Egyptians employed extraordinary construction techniques to build these pyramids and the work speaks for itself. One may argue that these pyramids were built by slaves but it is clear that all the workers were highly skilled and dedicated to the cause of their pharaoh. Considering the time and resources available at the time, it should be almost impossible to build such monuments thus the Egyptians hold these pyramids in high esteem. 

The Nile

The Nile river is arguably the most important resource of ancient Egypt and it is still considered as one of the most valuable resources today. The Nile river is more than just a river to Egyptians; it symbolizes fertility. The Nile provided a fertile land to Ancient Egyptians after its annual flooding. The flood deposited rich silt on the banks of the river which allowed Egyptians to grow their crops. Today, the majority of Egyptian population live within a few kilometers of the Nile. Canals transport water from the Nile to irrigate farms and support cities. 

The Mouseion 

The Mouseion or Musaeum in Alexandria, Egypt was an institution founded by Ptolemy I or Ptolemy II in the 3rd century BCE. It included the famous Library of Alexandria : an institution of world renown. It was a research center especially noted for its scientific and literary scholarship. However, the buildings of the museum were destroyed during the civil war under the Roman Emperor Aurelian. It is from the Musaeum that the word “Museum” was derived from. Even though the Mouseion is long gone, it serves as a symbol for Egyptians love for science and literature. 

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great in 332 BCE, conquered Egypt by defeating the Persians. Till date, he is respected and loved by Egyptians because as a leader, he respected the culture, religion, and the Egyptian people themselves. He was charmed by Egyptian culture to the extent that he began to wear their traditional clothes and study many of their scriptures. During his rule, he named the city Alexandra after himself which is one of the major cities in Egypt today. 

The Crusades 

The Crusades were a series of religious wars between Muslims and Christians started primarily to secure control of holy sites considered sacred by both groups. The Crusader invasion of Egypt occurred in about 1154 CE specifically to enable the kingdom of Jerusalem strengthen its position in the Levant by taking advantage of the weakness of Fatimid Egypt. However, in 1169 Ayyubid Saladin became the visor of Egypt. He was considered the most charismatic of the Sultans and was even admired by some of his enemies. During the First Crusade, the Christians took Jerusalem from the Muslims and it was under the leadership of Saladin the Muslim took it back. The Crusades ended in about 1291; however, its wounds are still being  endured today between Egyptian Muslims and European Christians. 


The Mamluks ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1517. They were slave soldiers, members of one of the armies of slaves established during the Abbasid era. Mamluk generals, under the Ayyubid sultanate, used their power to establish a dynasty that took political control over several Muslim states. The Mamluks are remembered in Egypt for their culture and learning; they were great patrons of the arts. They are known for making exceptional buildings such as the mosque madrasa and the Stone tracery on the dome of the Mausoleum of Sultan Barsbay

The Mosque Madrassa

The Mosque Madrassa, commissioned by Sultan Hassan , was built between 1356 and 1363 in Cairo, Egypt. The Mosque was considered astonishing for its huge size and remarkable architectural components. The Mosque is known to have an enormous central courtyard: a vast square space surrounded by four monumental chambers. These four chambers are said to have each been used for teaching one of the four schools of Islam. It is still considered one of the most impressive historic monuments by Egyptians today.

Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt

Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt is arguably one of the most impactful events on Egyptian Independence. The French invasion, led by Napoleon Bonaparte, of Egypt occurred in 1798. The campaign was proclaimed to defend French trade interests and seek further direct alliances with India to weaken Britain’s access to India. The invasion lasted for only four years; however, it demonstrated military, technological and organizational abilities of the Western European powers to Egypt. This invasion also introduced inventions such as the printing press and ideas such as Liberalism, nationalism and equality before the law which eventually led to Egyptian independence from the Ottoman rule. 

The Suez Canal

The Suez Canal is arguably the most important resource to Egyptians after the Nile. The 145 year old waterway is known as the fastest shipping route between Europe and Asia. It is reported to bring about $3 billion a year in revenue to Egypt. Egyptians view the Suez canal as their gift to the world and continues to remain a symbol of national pride beyond its economic capabilities. It is a symbol of what Egyptians are capable of.

Changing Identities

Changing Identities

My National and Personal Identity

The Sports Culture

While American football is commonly thought to be the sport that binds our country together, college sports, especially basketball, perform the same function. Most people choose their “team” based off of where they went to college, or even graduate school. Families and friends will often gather to watch tough games, even if they support opposing teams. In this way, college sports bring us together amidst the competition.

Connections to Multinational Organizations

One of things I have most admired about where I live is how we belong to many different multinational organizations, such as the United Nations and the International Energy Forum. Our participation in these groups highlights our efforts to be human and connect with people from other countries, not just our own, as well as our goals to strive to better our entire world.

Our Constitution

The Constitution, ratified in 1788, just 12 years after the United States declared its independence from Britain, outlines the rights of the citizens and the laws of the land. Although some aspects are outdated and must be read figuratively rather than literally, this document shows how the United States was built on a set of ideals, and how we have given our best attempt to do so since the day it was written.

Country Music

Of the many types of music that are unique to the United States, country music is one of the most distinctive. Although it is a highly divisive topic between the country music lovers and haters, it is often seen as a symbol of the entire southern region of the country. The themes covered in the lyrics often refer to the American dream, hard work, and the importance of family and love, which is why this genre of music is a good representer for the identity of most Americans.

Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C. is one of the most populous cities in the country, placed centrally along the east coast, where the heads of all three branches of government can be found. Besides the governmental buildings, the Smithsonian Institution maintains eleven museums, along with a national zoo and the national mall. Monuments that immortalize some of the most important leaders and change-makers of our country, such as Abraham Lincoln and Martin Luther King Jr., can also be seen scattered throughout the city.

The Right to Vote

While the Constitution guaranteed the citizens of the United States many freedoms, one of the most prized is the right to vote. Each year, people line up for the polls to vote for members of the legislative branch, including the House of Representatives and the Senate, to represent them and their state. Additionally, every four years, we are given the opportunity to vote for our head of the executive branch, our President.

National Celebrations

The Fourth of July, or Independence Day, is one of the biggest celebrations of the entire year in the United States. It usually involves firework shows, picnics, including hamburgers, hotdogs, and watermelon slices. Similar to how proud Americans are to exercise their right to vote, given to them in the Constitution, this day celebrates our declaration of freedom from the British and our birth as a new country.

The High School Experience

The United States guarantees free public education for all children through high school, or the twelfth grade, which is something that not all countries are able to provide for the citizens. Learning in this environment allows for the exploration of a wide array of subjects, participate in sports and arts groups, and for the making of friends.

Unique Cultural Fusion

The people that comprise the United States come from all over bringing with them a variety of languages and traditions. One of the most famous and celebrated of these is Mardi Gras, or Fat Tuesday, which occurs right before the start of the Christian religious tradition of Lent. Mardi Gras was first celebrated in France and has medieval origins, and is only one of the originally foreign traditions that has become popular in the United States.

NASA and the Moon Landings

One of NASA’s space center’s, the Kennedy Space Center, is located in Florida near Cape Canaveral, and allows for visitors to come and learn about the technology that has been used to reach the moon and gather information about our solar system and the rest of the universe. NASA is a good example for how exploration and education are a priority.

The National Park System

The National Park System is made up of over 422 national park sites, which could be anything from national parks, monuments, or historical sites. This agency is dedicated to protecting the natural and cultural resources provided by these areas for future generations to experience as well. Some of the most famous, such as Yellowstone or the Grand Canyon, have become natural symbols of the United States.

“American” Food

Burgers and fries are thought to be the most common American food, but much of the food that is most commonly eaten is derived or adapted from other countries or cultures. This applies to pizza and pasta, which are from Italy, tacos, which are adapted from traditional Mexican foods, and noodle and rice dishes, which come from all over Asia, making the cuisine of American an accurate depiction of the people who live there.

The Egyptian National Identity

The Arabic Language

Arabic has been used for over a thousand years, and in that time has influenced many other languages, including Turkish, Hindu, and Kurdish. It is the liturgical language for Muslims, which is important for Egypt, as a vast majority of its residents practice Islam. The Qur’an, the holy book of Islam, is written in Arabic.

The Book of the Dead

The Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian text made up of spells that describe and prepare a person for their passage into the afterlife, which was on of the keystone beliefs of the ancient Egyptian’s religion. When they first began being used, they were only available for the scribes and pharaohs, but they eventually began to be commercially sold, and even able to customized for the person purchasing it. In the image above, the heart of the deceased is weighed against a feather to measure their pureness and determine if they should be allowed passage to the much-coveted afterlife.


Cleopatra has come to be known as one of the most famous female leaders of all time. She was the last ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt and wisdom and cunning is often understated when it comes to her connections with Mark Antony and Julius Caesar, specifically in the Battle of Actium. She is remarked as a prototype for the characteristic romantic femme fatale.


Hieroglyphics were the formal writing system used in ancient Egypt, and one of the first systems of writing ever created. Some are symbols, while others are more literal pictures. They can be found on papyrus writings, such as the Book of the Dead, tomb inscriptions, and even some statues.

The Library of Alexandria

Established around 285 BCE, the Library of Alexandria was one of the largest and most magnificent libraries in the world. After its creation by Ptolemy I, the library housed between 200,000 and 700,000 books on poetry, law, rhetoric, and the natural sciences, among other subjects. Unfortunately, the building burned down in 48 BCE during Julius Caesar’s civil war. Although parts of its collection was salvaged, much was lost.

Islam and Architecture

Islam is the most commonly practiced religion in Egypt, and is the world’s second largest religion, with over 1.8 billions followers. The religion involves the practicing of the Prophet Muhammad’s teachings, as well as prayer rituals and a hajj, or pilgrimage. Mosque’s are a common place for muslims to perform their prayer rituals, and some, like that in the image above, have minarets. These minarets are the tall towers with a balcony where the muslims would be called in to worship.

Muhammad Ali Pasha

Muhammad Ali Pasha was born in Greece in 1769 and was the leader of Egypt from 1805 to 1848, and is widely recognized as the founder of modern Egypt. He administered many reforms in the military, economic, and cultural spheres and was able to consolidate his rule so much that his power threatened that of the Ottoman Sultan.

The Nile River

The Nile River flows northward through Egypt, emptying into the Mediterranean Sea. More than 4,000 miles long, this river is said to be the life-line of Egypt. Once a year, the river floods, soaking the fields on the edge of its banks, allowing for crops to grow for the rest of the year. This was vital to the survival of the ancient Egyptians, as the options for continued irrigation were slim.

The Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire

In 1453, Constantinople fell after being invaded and the Byzantine Era ended. The conquerors renamed the city Istanbul and began building the Ottoman Empire, which is shown above. After lasting for several hundred years, wars caused the power of the Empire to lessen, and eventually completely fell apart after the conclusion of the First World War.

The Pyramids of Giza

The Pyramids of Giza were constructed during Egypt’s 4th dynasty, over four thousand years ago. Their purpose is funerary, as the house the remains of deceased pharaohs. As they were built so long ago, the only machinery used during their construction was a pulley system that allowed for the heavy clay blocks to be hoisted up the pyramids by the workers. Today, they are one of the most well-known symbols of Egypt, as well as one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

The Suez Canal

Artificially created in 1859, the Suez Canal allows passage between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, where ships would have previously has to sail around the entirety of Africa. It was owned and operated by both the French and the British, before it was nationalized by the Egyptian’s in 1956. This resulted in the Suez Canal Crisis and led to Egypt being occupied by Israeli forces.

King Tutankhamun

Tutankhamun, also known as King Tut, was a pharaoh during ancient Egypt’s New Kingdom period, and was the last ruler of the 18th dynasty. His rule was relatively short, as he died at the young of nineteen. However, his fame is widespread, as his untouched tomb, filled with valuable artifacts and treasures, as well as his notable gold funerary mask, was recently discovered by Howard Carter in 1922. As a result, King Tut and his tomb piqued the interest of many in ancient Egypt and have since become a powerful symbol.

The Final Project


Russia and its core values


Historically, each nation or country has been represented by its flag. Russia is different in this case. Since early childhood, every kid born here is told that his or her country is the biggest one in the world. There is even a national joke about how many tiny European states can fit into our giant Motherland. For example, 26 Frances, 47 Germanies, 70 UKs, 2 territories of the United States, and even Pluto, yes, that tiny planet. Wait, was Russian territory one of the reasons Pluto got excluded? Who knows? But we definitely do…

The Kremlin


It is a well-known fact that the word “Kremlin” has been mentioned at least a billion times in the air of BBC, CNN, CNBC, ABC, etc. However, for Russians, it is something that represents the Motherland itself. With its shiny terra cotta walls that symbolize bravery and the national tricolor flag flying over the capital, the architectural ensemble serves as the main political hub of the country where the importance of decisions made oftentimes terrifies the locals passing by the Red Square on the way to Moscow River. In fact, if a Russian is asked to point at the heart of their country on a map, it is likely going to be the Kremlin.



Not only is my country known for its gigantic area, but also for the extreme temperatures that the locals might experience, especially in winter. However, I feel that it is something that has been an integral part of my life. In fact, in times of severe frost, one working down the street might be surprised to see a plethora of children playing outside on a business Wednesday. He will be even more surprised to find out that the reason those children are outside but not in school is because the classes were canceled and therefore the kids chose to catch up with their classmates on a frosty day. As far as I remember, I was no exception.



One thing that I miss about Russia while being abroad is its nature, especially summer nature. With its blossoming meadows and quiet forests, I can say for sure that this factor had a significant bearing on me as I was growing up. In fact, people living outside of big cities oftentimes use the tiny villages located in proximity as a weekend getaway destination. In the summer, the banks of the local rivers are filled with locals and tourists who gathered with their friends for a small picnic party.

World War II


Being one of the countries that suffered from the effects of WWII, Russia and its people serve as one of the remainders of the uselessness of the war aggression in resolving conflicts. One of the milestones of each calendar year for every citizen residing in Russia is the date of May 9 when the streets of various cities across the country serve as the parade grounds symbolizing the value of peacetime.



Russian food might not have the international renown of other, more widespread cuisines, but little-by-little, the foodie community is starting to uncover the true, delicious nature of traditional Russian food, and the unique, slightly eccentric and family-oriented philosophy that defines our food culture.

If we forget those outdated, Soviet-era inspired ideas about Russian cuisine as stodgy and unimaginative, one may find out Russia has a long and rich culinary history. Russian cooking is full of fascinating regional variations, and major cities are undergoing a modern-day gourmet renaissance. With more and more fine-dining restaurants gaining global acclaim Russia is slowly attracting food-the refined taste of the international community.



As one of the main trademarks of Russian culture, ballet has a special place in the hearts of most Russians. In fact, a local group of cultural activists conducted an experiment in three major Russian cities: Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Yekaterinburg ( a place where the last Russian tzar and his family were killed by the revolutionary activists). What they found out was no surprise to the Russians but shocked and astonished foreigners: 88% of those who took part in the research responded they visited a ballet performance at least once in their lives.


The Art Culture

For the people of my country, art has always taken a significant role in their lives, especially in the process of satisfying the general education requirement in the process of obtaining a degree. As art is deemed to be the national heritage, the Ministry of Education has always acted in a supportive manner about all the ideas that are to enhance the quality of art studying programs in both high schools and universities across the country.




As a person who was born and brought up in Russia, I can say with confidence that religion is definitely a significant portion of the daily life of a Russian. Despite the fact that there are people who choose to go to a church every Sunday or believe in the importance of religious rituals, no one can feel they are obliged or pressured to commit to any faith preached in Russia.

Oil&Gas industries

Despite the economic model involving heavy reliance on the above-metioned industries, they have been considered as an integral part of the nation that represent its precious heritage. In fact, the pipelines installed all over the country with the purpose of transporting hydrocarbons are oftentimes treated as vessel s of one giant body that not only support the country from the inside but also allow for monetary gains and theoretically a more prosperous future.

The End of the USSR Era

One of the milestones that shook the nation, our history, and the country itself was the collapse of the USSR era. Few countries have experienced the transformation of this scope. Coupled with economic uncertainty and the vulnerability of the free market economy, the nation was undergoing one of the most challenging times in its modern history. Despite the economic difficulties that were not easy to overcome, political instability exacerbated the situation.


According to the ranking published by one of the most respected language learning website, Russian is considered to be No. 3 the most difficult language to acquire for English speakers. Starting with the freaky Cyrillic alphabet and coupled with complex grammar rules, my mother tongue might become a nightmare for those trying to master it. However, despite its complexity, this language if learned might become a key asset in understanding how the cultural, political as well as interpersonal communications work.


Egypt and its core values




Every time one hears about Egypt, the first thing that crosses their minds is not Africa but the fine country that stands along the banks of the Nile River. In fact, Egypt’s geographical location is truly exceptional: the country’s lands primarily consist of the Western desert, yet the powerful river divides the whole territory into the two major parts: Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt.

The Nile River


The Nile is River is no ordinary flow of water descending through the lands to a sea. It is a truly powerful source that has been not only the main transportation means for millennia but also the primary source of food for the locals. With its annual floods, it allowed the ancient civilization that survived until today to prosper and blossom. Even today, the Egyptians celebrate this important cultural event that begins in the middle of August and lasts for around two weeks each year.



The history of religion in Egypt knows a plethora of changes that occurred inside the country. It started with the belief that each natural object or event possesses its respective patron, for instance, Amun-Ra, the head God, was responsible for the sun; Mut – for giving birth to Egypt, and Osiris – for guiding people in their afterlife. However, with the development of the nation and its history, Islam came to be the dominant religion of Egypt with more than 90% of the population being recognized followers of that faith.

The French Heritage


The French invasion of Egypt is remembered as one of the milestones in Egyptian history that possesses its pros and cons. However, despite the political dominance of the new government installed by Napoleon, the French introduced the locals to the new developments and scientific practices not known before in that region. In addition to the creation of such prominent objects for the scientific community, the army of General Bonaparte brought the French culture this mysterious country.

Suez Canal


Since its opening in 1869, it has always been regarded as a powerful tool that has shaped the current economy of Egypt and boosted international trade. In fact, the benefits that come from the operation of this site are enormous. For example, in the years 1967-1975 during the war between Israel and Egypt, the Suez Canal seized its operation which in turn resulted in enormous losses for the countries that relied on this trade route. Among the most affected trading states were Pakistan, India, and China which lost several percentage points of their annual GDP.

The Local Dishes

Egyptian cuisine is a bit of a mix due to geography, history, and religion. Traditional Egyptian food shares a lot of similarities to the Eastern Mediterranean region and is heavy in vegetables.

Vegetables are an important part of traditional Egyptian cuisine both historically and in modern times. This is mainly thanks to the rich farming soils along the Nile river and delta. Historically, they were also traditionally much cheaper than meat, which resulted in becoming a more popular food choice and a staple in many traditional Egyptian dishes. Another important factor is the Coptic Christian community of Egypt, who follow strict diets throughout the year that are essentially vegan.

Football is our heart! Hey, Mohammed!


Football is by far the most popular sport in Egypt and the Egyptian national football team called the “Pharaohs” has taken home the African Cup of Nations a total of seven times which includes a three-peat performance in 2006, 2008, and 2010. Without a doubt, this is why they are considered the most successful among the African national teams and one of the few African national teams that reached a single-digit ranking in FIFA (9th). The national team has only qualified for the FIFA World Cup three times, the most recent in Russia 2018.

Damn, what a dam!

The dam was constructed to regulate the flow of the river, which serves the whole of Egypt.

Flooding of the Nile occurs annually, with almost half of the water being drained into the sea wastefully. The dam controls floods by regulating the flow of the river and supplies water for irrigation throughout the year, which almost doubles the agricultural yield.

The dam also improved navigation across the Nile, benefiting the tourism and fishing industries. Water from the dam is used to feed 12 power turbines, which provides half of Egypt’s power demands. The reservoir also helps supply water during droughts.

The Old Kingdom


This historical period became one of the important milestones of Egyptian history. During that time, the country was divided into the smaller regions – nomes – for the purpose of the optimization of governmental spending, yet the central and absolute power was still concentrated in hands of the pharaoh. The Old Kingdom period is most famous for building pyramids. This includes the first pyramid, the Pyramid of Djoser, and the largest pyramid, the Great Pyramid at Giza. The peak of the Old Period was during the Fourth Dynasty when pharaohs such as Sneferu and Khufu ruled.

The Book of the Dead


Produced in the ancient Egyptian analogs of modern temples, the book if purchased was deemed as a symbol of high status and prosperity of its owner. Only the selected few could afford this purchase and therefore it was not accessible for average people. It was a full guide that the Egyptians believe could help them and their family member prosper in the inner world. The book provided a coded description of their life as well as invaluable advice that the owner should follow after his soul departs from the Earth.

The Nilometer

Nilometer is a truly unique device utilized by the tax officers back in ancient Egypt. The device itself represents a well that was dug on a bank of the Nile River with the purpose of estimating the current level of the underground water. The logic behind the implementation of this device was simple: if the estimates show that the upcoming flood will not be sufficient to feed the population, the grain tax was decreased and vice versa.


Nature of Egypt

Within Egypt are around 28 protected ecosystems that range from coral reefs to Nile River Islands, desert regions, and the mountainous areas of the Sinai Peninsula. Recent years have seen the induction of more protected areas to encourage ecotourism in Egypt. Some of the wetland protectorates like the Zaraniq Protectorate and El Bardaweel Marsh are very important to worldwide bird migrations. As such, these areas are designated as both “Wetland Protectorate” and “Natural Restricted Area for Birds”. Over 270 bird species can be found in these areas including pelicans, herons, and crested larks.



Egyptian Identity

National identity of Egypt

Creation of the first dynasty

The creation of the first dynasty under Menes around 3000 BC was the beginning of an empire. During this period, hieroglyphics began to appear as society begins to become organized in Egypt. It set the tone for the future of Egypt and set the foundation for how Egypt is today.

The Nile River

The Nile River was fundamental to Egypt’s success as a civilization. As it served as one of Egypt’s only large sources of water, it is not surprising that mostly every city was built near it. When the Nile would flood, it would fertilize the land thus allowing for the cultivation of crops in the region. The Nile also boosted Egypt’s economy through trade routes and protection from barbarians. It was not solely important to Egypt for its economic use, however. The Nile was sacred to their faith in Ancient Egypt. Egypt wouldn’t have been able to prosper and progress without the Nile River. 

The Lighthouse of Alexandria

The Lighthouse at Alexandria is a fundamental structure and piece of architecture to Egyptian history. Although it was damaged on multiple occasions and is completely destroyed now, it served as a representation of Egypt’s power and strength. In fact, this structure serves as the quintessential lighthouse for architects today. It was built in the 3rd century BCE and completed by Ptolemy II. Although the large Egyptian fort of Quaitbey has been built over the landmark, it is important not to forget the importance and beauty of the lighthouse that once stood there.

The Pyramids of Giza

The Pyramids of Giza is the resting place of King Khufu who ruled from 2589 BCE until 2566 BCE, during the fourth dynasty of Egypt. This landmark stands 455 feet tall and is the oldest of the seven wonders of the world. Pyramids were an essential part of Egyptian culture, as they were not always actual tombs, but were monuments dedicated to the life of a ruler.

Ancient Egyptian Temples

It seems that the ancient Egyptian temples go unnoticed due to the popularity of the pyramids, but in my opinion, they are of equal importance. Many Ancient Egyptian temples continue to stand today in ruins because they were built in stone. These have been some of the most important factors in the acquisition of knowledge about Ancient Egypt because of their elaborate design as well as their specific dedication, often only to one deity of a specific region. 

The Sphinx of Giza

The Sphinx of Giza is another well-known statue that came out of Ancient Egypt. It depicts a reclining sphinx, a mythological creature with a lion body and human head made out of limestone standing 66 feet tall. It faces directly from West to East and stands on the Giza plateau on the West Bank of the Nile. This is an iconic form of architecture and I’m sure all Egyptians are proud to represent this. 

The Crusades in Egypt

The crusades in Egypt was another major turning point for Egyptian history. Crusaders invaded Egypt from 1154-1169 during Fatimid Egypt. The crusaders were repulsed as Egypt prevailed in defense of their land. This led to Saladin becoming Sultan in 1171 and the inevitable defeat of the crusader states in Jerusalem. This was massively influential to the future of the nation. 


Cairo is the capital of Egypt and is along the Nile. It’s a very populated city and contributes a lot to Egypt’s economy with the production of goods and trade. It houses many universities and is a center of learning and education. It is also a center for Egyptian culture and a place where many Arab movies are filmed.  It holds many famous historical structures, such as the Giza Pyramids Complex and the Sphinx. When people around the globe think about Egypt, I’m sure one of their first ideas that comes to mind is the city of Cairo.


Cleopatra was a powerful woman in Egypt at a time where women were seen as inferior. She became queen at the age of 18, but was forced to exile due to conflicts with her brother. She ended up garnering a strong army and eventually took back her empire with Caesar, and later Mark Antony. She was very deciding in terms of the historical impact she’s made on the political aspect of things in Egypt.

The Book of The Dead

The Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian text that is made up of a collection of spells that are believed to protect and guide a soul through their afterlife. The Book is written on papyrus scrolls and is put in the tombs of the dead. This is important because it determined the way ancient Egyptians lived their lives because they wanted to have a happy afterlife. This book is hugely influential in the spiritual sense of identity in Egypt.

The Egyptian Flag

This is Egypt’s revolutionary and liberation flag. The red band symbolizes the Egyptians’ blood in the war against colonization. The white band symbolizes the purity of the Egyptian’s heart. The black band below the white, symbolizes the manner in which darkness is overcome. This flag stands for everything that Egypt does, and I definitely feel that the Egyptian people are proud to represent it. 

Islam – Dominant Religion

Islam is the dominant religion in modern-day Egypt, totaling 90 percent of the population identifying as a part of Islam. The majority of Egyptian Muslims identify as Sunni and follow the Maliki school of jurisprudence, though all legal schools are represented. Representing the vast majority of the population, I am sure these people are very proud of the religion they live by. 


My American Identity

The Identity of American History

The American Flag

The American Flag, for me, embodies everything America stands for. When any individual lays eyes on this symbol of patriotism and national identity, they should understand that it represents unity, strength, freedom, and many other American privileges. This flag represents what our country stands for and truly embodies the idea of being an American. I feel proud every time I take a step on the baseball field and get to respect the flag.

The Declaration Of Independence

The Declaration of Independence was a major turning point in history. The declaration of Independence, followed by the Bill of Rights symbolize freedom and the right to free will in America. Prior to the drafting and signing of this declaration, America was under strict provisions and restrictions by their mother country, Britain. With the implementation of this agreement, our country moved towards the goal of freedom and it laid out the foundation for all the privileges we have today. I am proud to say that this is what allows me to go outside and freely breathe fresh air and live out my life the way in which I want to.

The Civil War

Another reason I am extremely proud to be an American citizen is because of the sense of unity I feel in my everyday life. From playing baseball, to attending a University, to the broad idea of being a member of society, the sense of togetherness is abundant to me. In this country, people of all colors are welcomed (for the most part in my opinion) and this is because of the forward movements that the civil war allowed to come about. This war was a major shift for America and I feel a sense of national identity and unity with everyone because of it.

Jackie Robinson – First African American to make the major leagues

Being a college baseball player and an avid fan of the sport, I strongly support anything Jackie Robinson related. He was the first black male athlete to make a major impact in the major leagues, or any professional sport much less. He opened the door for many disadvantaged individuals in years to come and I am very proud to play the sport that he did, representing the values and integrity that he did. Not every country allows for those of different ethnicities and races to participate in the same activity, and I am extremely grateful and proud to live in a country that does.

9/11- Bombing of The Twin Towers

This is a photo of the attack on the Twin Towers on September 11th, 2001. Although this is a photo of tragedy, it brings me great national pride and pride in my identity as an American. The way this nation has responded to such a gruesome act of violence is truly remarkable and the efforts made by millions of individuals nationwide following the event has allowed for us to progress in such an amazing way over the past 19 years. The grit, and perseverance that this photo embodies, for me, make me extremely gracious and proud to live in this great country and those are two characteristics that I strive to live by every day.

Neil Armstrong – First man to walk on the moon

Americans pride themselves on many things, but to me, this photo is one of the greatest achievements our country has ever had. For years prior to this, nations had attempted to reach the moon, and after just a few short years of research, America sent the first man to the moon. I am proud to live in a nation that is at the top of the line in gaining knowledge, technology, and all in all wits. The fact that we were able to accomplish this before other nations who worked at the same pace speaks measures about how great America truly is.

Barack Obama elected in 2008

In 2008, the first black President ever was elected. Barack Obama becoming the president was a testament to the advancements our country has made in terms of equality. Some other countries would never allow something like this to happen but I feel blessed to live in a democratic society that gives everyone a chance and allows everyone to have the same achievable goals. It gives me personally tons of hope to think that I can achieve any goal I set my mind to.

The National Anthem

The national anthem, which is the song that truly identifies America was originally a poem. The poem was later set to music and officially became the National Anthem in 1931. It is a heart wrenching and awe-inspiring song every single time it’s played whether at the Olympics, other sporting events, or public gathering. It is sung with great American pride and represents all those who have fought to preserve our freedoms

The Great Depression

The Great Depression is the single largest and most impactful economic recession in modern history. It took place from 1929 until 1939 and peaked at a staggering 25% unemployment rate that caused nearly everyone to struggle for money. The impact of the Great Depression lead to the Americans joining the Allied powers in World War II, in part to help bolster their economy, while helping to defeat the Nazis. The fact that America was able to prosper following this time period is another telling sign of how resilient this country is.

World War 2

World War Two was a defining point in United States history. The United States was challenged and rose to the occasion by defeating Japan. A new era of Patriotism arose from the war as people united on the homefront to win the war. The United States also showed the world its capability with the dropping of the nuclear bombs on Japan as they became feared on the world stage by adversaries.

The Statue of Liberty

The Statue of Liberty, surprisingly, is not American. It was built in France in the late 1800s and offered as a gift, the Statue of Liberty has embedded itself in American culture as a symbol of independence and acceptance. The thousands of immigrants who arrived in the United States by way of Ellis Island saw Lady Liberty as a beacon of hope when they entered New York Harbor by sea.

American Music

From jazz, blues, country, bluegrass, Americana, and my personal favorite Hip Hop; these genres are just a few examples of American musical innovation. These distinctly American styles developed in different areas of the country and have taken on international importance as they grew increasingly popular. Our American music is listened to be people worldwide, showing the influence we have on other nations as well.


My Egyptian Identity

The Book of The Dead

The book of the dead is one of the most memorable artifacts in Egyptian history. The book of the dead is the first recorded religion to date. The principles and beliefs in ancient Egyptian religion acted as a foundation for the hallmark religions today.


Language is very important to one’s national identity in many ways. Different regions have different dialects and within Islam the word of religion is not to be translated out of its “mother tongue.” Todays modern Arabic has a lot to thank to Butrus Al-Bustani’s prose.


The Egyptians were the first to practice modern medicine in the ancient world. Their medicinal practices were known around the world and many countries learned from Egyptian healers. This holds great significance for Egypt as they were known as one of the earliest most intelligent societies in history.

The Nile River

The Nile River is crucial to life in Egypt. The earliest civilizations depended on the annual flooding of the Nile for their entire livelihood. The floods brought extremely fertile land to the valley and the delta that allowed for life in such a hostile environment. The Nile allowed for Egypt to produce the ancient worlds largest supply of wheat. This river is still of immense importance in Egypt today.

The Mediterranean

The Mediterranean is the reason for much of Egypt’s early wealth. Egypt once controlled much of the trade in the Mediterranean and it was vastly important for international relations. Today the Mediterranean not only hold significant trade importance to Egypt but it is also of great importance to the ecotourism of the area.

The Library of Alexandria

The Library of Alexandria was the greatest collection of knowledge in the ancient world. This amazing collection of scrolls existed until around 2000 years ago when the library caught fire during a siege. Today there is a library in its honor known to be one of the most remarkable of todays age.

The Romans

The Romans controlled Egypt from 30 BCE to around 641 CE. There were many run ins with the pharaoh Cleopatra. She used two Roman rulers to gain and maintain power and stability in her country. This is one of the most significant eras of Egyptian history.

The Market Place

The market place is where all the hustle and bustle of Middle Eastern life happens. Market places are common among most Middle Eastern countries and they are a huge part of Egyptian society. Bartering is expected in the market place and its a big past time in Cairo.

The Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire took control of Egypt in 1517. The Ottoman regime lasted until 1867 lasting in a total of 350 years. This is a very recent occupation of Egypt that has had effects on the country for years. Egypt’s history is filled with many occupations that all impart culture and struggle on the people of the country.

The Pyramids

When you think of Egypt the first thing that comes to mind is the pyramids. The pyramids symbolize the greatness of the ancient Egyptians and the shrewd intelligence and capability of this ancient civilization. These pyramids also act as a huge profit for the nation in tourism. These structures are of immense significance to the legacy and culture of Egypt.


Islam is the “national” religion of Egypt. Although there are many in the country who do not practice Islam, it is a huge part of the nations identity and culture. Islam was brought to Egypt between 639 and 646 CE and has held foot ever since.


Food is the expression of every country. Egyptian food is of great importance to ones national identity as it is how people celebrate and express love and joy through their culture. Egypt, having so many different cultural occupations over the years, has had a lot of influence from said countries in the foods of the nation.


My National Identity

Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus, although a controversial figure today, was the explorer who first came to the “West Indies.” This is a huge part of my American and Puerto Rican identity. The establishment of the United States may have never happened without Columbus. In addition, I have taino heritage as a Puerto Rican, these were the people Columbus brutally enslaved and killed. This history is greatly important in both my American and Puerto Rican identity.

American Revolution

The American Revolution began in 1765, as the colonies began their revolt from Britain’s rule. This is a crucial piece of the history of the United States today. Without this revolution the United States would have stayed under Britain’s rule. One great American luxury that came from this was free capitalism and taxation with representation. These are hallmarks of our society today and they are two principles that, in my opinion, define much of the United States today.

Civil War

The Civil War is arguably on of the most important events in American history. The Civil War was between the Union and Confederate armies. This war is often mistaken as the end of slavery in the United States, yet this was the beginning of the end of the American institution of slavery. This is hugely important to our modern society.


The Industrial Revolution is the reason we as Americans have the luxury of modernity and capitalism. The Industrial Revolution is to thank for our working conditions, the middle class, and a lot of public health ideas. This was the first time in history this really happened. Without this todays work force would be a cruel environment.

Ellis Island

This country was founded on immigration. The United States is often referred to as the melting pot of the world. This is particularly important to my national identity because most of my family immigrated to this country. Without this luxury, my family would not exist or be living the lives we are today.


On September 11, 2001 terrorists attacked the World Trade Center. This changed society as we know it today. Now there are strict travelling security measures and with a horrendous act like this comes the hatred of an entire group of people. My family, being middle eastern, has experienced some of this hatred. 9/11 is a huge part of the collective American image but it also holds a place in my life from a prejudicial standpoint as well.

Washington D.C.

Washignton D.C. is our nations capital and is the home of our government. The priviledge and luxury of having a free democracy means a lot to my family. A lot of my family came to this country for a better life and our government was the reason. This is a very controversial topic today , but my family is grateful for being given the opportunity.

American Football

Football has been a big part of my life since I was little. My family and I are aggressive Eagles fans. We would always have people over for games. Watching football is definitely a majority of my childhood memories.

University of Richmond

The University of Richmond is my new home. I have spent my whole life thinking about college. I would be worried about school in third grade because I wanted to get into college so bad. Now that I’m in college I have fallen in love with every aspect of college life.

Puerto Rico

My grandmother came to the United States when she was 18. I spent a lot of my childhood with her. She taught me how to speak Spanish, cook and also how to dance, all of my passions today. I most closely relate to my Hispanic heritage.


My grandfather came to the United States from Lebanon to find a better life. He soon became the top military engineer in his company. He would come home from work every day with Lebanese pastries and candy. Also, Lebanese food is my favorite food to cook.


My great-grandfather came to the United States to escape from China. I always grew up cooking Chinese food and going into China town every weekend. We would go to dim sum every Sunday and go to the underground Asian market. A lot of my childhood was filled with my Chinese culture.


Egyptian and American Identity

Jordan Leibowitz


The Declaration of Independence

The Declaration of Independence was written in 1776 and represents the beginning of the United States as its own independent nation, as they announced that they would refuse to be seen as a British colony. It continues to define the values of American and what it means to live in a free country. 

The First American Flag

The first American flag had thirteen stars and thirteen stripes to represent the thirteen former British Colonies that made up the Union. The three colors represented, red, white, and blue all represent different values that the early leaders of America wanted to emphasize. Red represents the valor and hardiness of the nation, white represents purity and innocence, and blue represents perseverance and justice. 

The Constitutional Convention

The Constitutional Convention took place in Philadelphia in 1787 and was led by George Washington who would later become President. The 55 men at the Constitutional convention faced an unprecedented amount of challenges during this convention, but ended up coming up with what would form the backbone of the United States legal and political system. 

The Louisiana Purchase

The Louisiana purchase was the acquisition of a significant amount of territory in the Midwestern United States from the French. This was the beginning of Westward expansion by the American people, as they would begin to expand their nation into the western parts of the United States, many of which play crucial roles in the economy today. 

The Confederacy

The states in the Southern United States began to feel pressure due to the Northern opposition of slavery, which played an essential role in their economy, as it drastically increased productivity. The split between the two different sides of the country started to become a major point of tension to the point where the Southern States split from the union and formed the Confederate States of America. 

The Civil War

The Civil War was fought between the Union and Confederate army in a brutal dispute about state’s rights and the justification for slavery. The war started in 1861 and ended in 1865, after over 600,000 American lives were lost and the Union’s size and capital advantage manifested in a victory over the Confederacy. 

End of the Civil War

The Civil War ended on April 12th of 1865 after four years of brutal fighting and political turmoil with an agreement at Appomattox Court House between Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant. Despite the end of the war, the nation would face many difficult obstacles in restoring the Union in the aftermath over a long period over the later half of the 19th century known as Reconstruction. 

The Great Depression

The Great Depression is the single largest and most impactful economic recession in modern history. It took place from 1929 until 1939 and peaked at a starggering 25% unemployment rate that caused nearly everyone to struggle for money. The impact of the Great Depression lead to the Americans joining the Allied powers in World War II, in part to help bolster their economy, while helping to defeat the Nazis.

Pearl Harbor

The Attack on Pearl Harbor took place on December 7th, 1941 when Japanese air forces bombed a US Naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, killing thousands. This was the most influential step in the United States entering World War II, in effort to help its European Allies defeat the Axis powers and to protect itself from future attacks. 

Jackie Robinson

Jackie Robinson broke the color barrier to Major League Baseball during the 1942 season, which proved to be a major stepping stone for the Civil Rights movement, as Robinson gave African-Americans the courage to let their talent speak instead of their race. 

The March on Washington

The march on Washington took place on August 28th, 1963 in Washington D.C. and was lead by Martin Luther King jr. This march was a peaceful protest to fight against the discrimination that African-Americans faced in the United States. The protesters were advocated for better Civil and economics rights, hoping for better compensation for their jobs. This march was one of the most significant parts of the Civil Rights Movement, which took place among not only African-Americans, but many United States citizens in effort to level the playing field for all people. 

The Moon Landing

The moon landing occurred on July 20th, 1969 and marked the first time that a man would step foot on the moon. The two astronauts who were on the mission were Neal Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, who are credited for not only being the first two men to step foot on the moon, but with helping to get there before the USSR. The moon landing occurred at the height of the Cold War, a time where the United States and the USSR were the two most powerful nations in the world and were competing on literally every ground, from political influence to sports to prove superiority.

The History of EGYPT

The Nile River

The Nile River is the main source of water within Egypt and has always been a foundation of their economy. The Nile Delta is in Northern Egypt, which has allowed them to grow crops on the river. Their entire life depended upon the Nile in Ancient times, as it was their primary source of food through both fish and watering their crops and their primary source of transportation to trade with other civilizations.

The Pyramids of Giza

The Pyramids of Giza is the resting place of King Khufu who ruled from 2589 BCE until 2566 BCE, during the fourth dynasty of Egypt. This landmark stands 455 feet tall and is the oldest of the seven wonders of the world. Pyramids were an essential part of Egyptian culture, as they were not always actual tombs, but were monuments dedicated to the life of a ruler.

King Tut

King Tutankhamen was the last ruler of the 18th dynasty of Egypt and ruled from 1324 BCE until 1334 BCE, where he died at the age of 19. Tutankhamen’s father is the well known ruler Akhenaten , who is also known by the name Amenhotep IV and ruled Egypt for 17 years. King Tut is more famous for his tomb than his actual rule, as the discovery of his tomb lead to a significant amount of knowledge about Ancient Egyptian society. 


Hieroglyphics were the formal written language of Ancient Egypt, combining logographic elements with syllabic and alphabetic elements. They were written in rows and columns and read from right to left, as human characters would often face towards the beginning of the line. They were written on stone in temples and tomb walls, as well as papyrus. It was written in a cursive form on wood and stone when directed for religious literature.

Ancient Egyptian Temples

Many Ancient Egyptian temples continue to stand today in ruins because they were built in stone. These have been some of the most important factors in the acquisition of knowledge about Ancient Egypt because of their elaborate design as well as their specific dedication, often only to one deity of a specific region. 

The Temple of Ramses ii

This statue sits in front of the temple of Ramses ii and is one of the most well known architectural structures associated with Egypt. Its elaborate design of the four men sitting in front of the temple is done in great detail, especially for having been done around 1240 BCE. 


Cleopatra is the most well known female ruler of Ancient Egypt as well as the last ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. She ruled from 69 BCE until her death in 30 BCE and is most well known for her refusal to surrender to the Romans, as well as her complicated Romantic and Political relationship with Mark Antony. 

The Sphynx

The Sphinx of Giza is another well known statue that came out of Ancient Egypt. It depicts a reclining sphynx, a mythological creature with a lion body and human head made out of limestone standing 66 feet tall. It faces directly from West to East and stands on the Giza plateau on the West Bank of the Nile. 

Anwar Sadat

Anwar Sadat was the President of Egypt from 1970 until October 15th, 1981, when he was assassinated by a Muslim Extremist during a parade. Sadat’s reputation fell because of his desire to impress the Western World, along with his inability to see the situation of his own country and how it would be impacted by his going against the European Union in efforts to make peace with Israel. This failed effort not only did not pave the path to peace between Israel and other nations, but pulled Egypt further into a recession. 

The Camp David Accords

The Camp David Accords were a meeting in September of 1978 led by United States President, Jimmy Carter between the Egyptian President, Anwar Sadat and the Israeli Prime Minister, Menachem Begin in order to take the first steps towards peace between Israel and its Middle Eastern neighbors en route to solving the dispute that had been brewing since Israel’s conception in 1948. The tension in the Middle East was so volatile that communications between the countries and Israel was essentially impossible, so it was almost a miracle that the two men were able to have a productive conversation that led to a treaty that both sides agreed to. 

The Ottoman Empire

Egypt became a part of the Ottoman Empire in 1517, where it was absorbed by Turkey following the 1516 Ottoman-Mamluk War. Egypt served as an administrative district for the Ottomans and adopted Islam as its main religion due to Ottoman rule and influence on society. Egypt remained a crucial part of the Ottoman empire until the early 20th century, where the Ottomans lost it due to World War I. 

The Fall of the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire was clearly in decline during the early part of the 20th century, and eventually this decline culminated in them losing Egypt, as well as the Suez Canal to England, where it became a British colony until the end of World War II.