Alternative Weaponry between War and Peace

This guest post by Delia Flanagan, one of the student employees at Parsons Music Library, sheds great light on the way music serves society, promotes peace, and works to unify people in conflict zones. Thank you, Delia, for these valuable thoughts!


This past year I lived in one of the most hotly-debated conflict regions. Each passing day, as one would assume, I was faced with the most powerful of weaponry. This almighty force however, is not exclusive to any one side of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In fact, it is fiercely maneuvered and discharged daily on both sides of the Israel Separation Wall. Everyone has access to it: all ages, all socio-economic stances, all political perspectives and all paths of faith. Due to the rapid fire of globalization, this weapon is continuously spreading and gathering greater force and subsequent influence across checkpoints, nation-state borders, and ideological barriers.  Day by day this weapon continues to have a tremendous and lasting impact on every soul it passes. The trembling effects of this weapon veer away from those of the archetype ammunition, that is, destruction, demolishment, and dehumanization.  Instead, this weapon produces and is produced by love. This weapon is music.

The powerful effects of music are generally known and understood. Yet in a region where politics and warfare are the epicenter of international attention, discussions of power and influence revolve around military officials, security forces and political bureaucrats. The influential transcendence of music however, going beyond all positions, perspectives and polities, is often ignored and overlooked.

Throughout my experience in Israel/Palestine/the Holy Land (or whichever name you and/or your political perspectives label this region,) I distinctly noticed the prevailing effects of music in bringing peace, love, compassion and empathy between Israelis and Palestinians. Yet as an American—especially one without ancestral, ethnic or religious ties to either side of the conflict—the almighty force of music served as the ultimate factor in connecting my individual self to the widely diverse and complicated territory I came to call my home. While the limited knowledge I had in both Hebrew and Arabic allowed me to converse with the local community greater than the average Western traveler, my sincere passion for music was the ultimate ingredient for immersing and engaging myself as a native. Whether I was listening to a live Oud player with friends in Ramallah, or dancing at a trance music festival in the Negev desert, music allowed me, and all of those around me, to eradicate any preconceived labels or harmful barriers, put the discourse of war and conflict aside, and rather bask in the transmitting waves of love, unity, and respect for all.

Now that I am back on the University of Richmond campus, I long for that feeling of utter peace and compassion amidst living in a conflict zone. Fortunately there are many outlets for me to be brought back to this particular state of bliss. While working at Parsons Music Library, I continuously come across a variety of CDs that allow me bring the sounds of the Holy Land into my Richmond experience. In particular, the “Desert Blues- Rêves d’ Oasis” collections, along with “Zaghareed: music from the Palestinian holy land” and Palestinian hip hop group DAM’s “Dedication” album have allowed me to reminisce on the beautiful and spiritual sounds, collecting my memories and nurturing my nostalgia in order to push forth with my final year at the University. The sounds inspire me as I begin contemplating which path to take upon graduation, as I long to live in a place again, where despite all of the volatility of political combustion, music continues to spread as the almighty weapon of force and love.

Images taken from Arab music festival in Majd Al-Shams in the Golan Heights.

Election Season Is Upon Us – National Anthems Heard Here!

Hello blogosphere! This is the first entry in Listening In, the blog of Parsons Music Library. Enjoy and leave comments, please!

We’re kicking off the blog with a post that is always timely, but even more so now that we have the 2012 Presidential Election within a few weeks.

You are all no doubt quite familiar with the importance of our national anthem, “The Star Spangled Banner.” Any large public ceremony, professional athletic event, or public gathering makes sure to start with a performance, usually sung by a vocalist. With an octave and a half range, though, this song is notoriously difficult to sing, and critics of the music often complain that it is down right unsingable!

public domain, published in 1814 by Carr's Music Store

One of only 10 existing originals that show the complete music and words to Francis Scott Key’s composition.

So why did Francis Scott Key set his beautiful poem about witnessing the battle of Fort McHenry during the War of 1812 to this song? Actually, he knew of the melody for a good ten years before he wrote the lyrics. The song was composed originally by Englishman John Stafford Smith as a popular song called “The Anacreontic Song” in honor of Greek poet Anacreon. Key liked the melody, and so it turned into “The Star-Spangled Banner.” (Yes, that is just about the shortest history one could write about the origins!)

But what about other countries around the world? Most anthems are musical symbols, just like a crest or flag, of the history and people of their country. The article on national anthems in Grove Music Online says the following about the variety of text subjects in anthems:

“The texts of national anthems are rarely of literary merit. Patriotic fervour is usually the keynote, although the forms and images used to express it vary a good deal and can reveal much about the character of a nation at the time the words were written. The text of an anthem may often have to be revised or modified in the light of political changes within the country or in its relations with its neighbours. Some countries, particularly those that have enjoyed long periods of peace and political stability, choose anthems that dwell on the natural beauty of the land. Several anthems are built around a national hero, such as Denmark’s King Christian and Haiti’s Jean-Jacques Dessalines, or around a nation’s flag, like those of Honduras and the USA. Many are in effect prayers, like God Save the King/Queen, or calls to arms, like France’s La Marseillaise. The struggle for independence (or the pride in achieving it) is a favourite theme among those countries that have emerged since 1945.”

Interestingly, Grove Music Online also divides the style of music that helps classify an anthem. They use the following distinctions:

1) Hymn: Eurocentric in design with stateliness, smooth melodic development, and typically quite old in origin.

2) March: Like “La Marseillaise” of France or “Marcha Real” of Spain.

3) Operatic anthem: Central and South America typically, many of which were written by Italians, and quite impractical to sing.

4) Folk anthem: Might require indigenous instruments and/or formal gestures, and typically have no influence from European colonization. Myanmar, Japan, Tibet, and Sri Lanka are a few examples.

5) Fanfare: with no text normally, these are more simply a music theme. Since many Middle Eastern countries only allow a sung performance if the audience is the same gender as the performer, their anthems often fall into this category. Examples include Qatar, Kuwait, and Bahrain.

One final interesting note from Grove:
” In January 1972 an arrangement by Herbert von Karajan of the main theme from the finale of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony was adopted (against the wishes of many musicians) as a European anthem by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (it was later chosen also as the national anthem of Rhodesia).”

For further reading, here is the link to the Grove article, with descriptions of many anthems, along with short musical notation of their melodies.If you’d like to listen to some collections of national anthems, here are links to audio recordings of national anthems across the world that we own:

Collections of National Anthems (Europe, U.S.S.R., Asia)

America, Africa, Middle East, Oceania

Hymnes nationaux du monde (performed by the Vienna State Opera Orchestra)

World Anthems (performed by the Miller Brass Ensemble)